Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/516

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the nota accusativi אֶת־ (equivalent to the circumstance, the fact, that), e.g. Jos 210, 1 S 2411, 19, 2 S 1120, Is 383, but in Gn 3029, Dt 2915 equivalent to the way in which.

§158. Causal Clauses.

 [158a]  A complete clause, assigning the reason for statements, demands, threats, &c., sometimes follows with the simple wāw copulative, e.g. ψ 6013 give us help against the adversary, and (for) vain is the help of man; Gn 617 (וַֽאֲנִי), 22:12, Ex 239, Jb 2212, perhaps also ψ 710; or even without Wāw, e.g. Gn 1714. As a rule, however, special conjunctions in various combinations are used to introduce causal clauses.

 [158b]  The most common causal conjunctions are יַ֫עַן כִּי Is 316, &c., and יַ֫עַן אֲשֶׁר because, prop. on account of the fact that; both, however, may also be shortened to the simple יַ֫עַן Nu 2012, &c., or to כִּי because, Gn 314, 17, &c., or to אֲשֶׁר Gn 3018, 3149, 3413, 27, 1 S 1515, 2042, 2616, 23, 1 K 319, 833, Ho 144, Zc 115; also בַּֽאֲשֶׁר Gn 399, 23. On the other hand, the simple יָ֫עַן is sometimes repeated for emphasis, יָ֫עַן וּבְיַ֫עַן (something like the German sintemal und alldieweil) Lv 2643, Ez 1310 (without וּ 36:3); also עַל־אֲשֶׁר 2 S 330, and עַל־כִּי[1] Dt 3117, Ju 312, Mal 214 on the ground that; עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר because of the circumstance that, Dt 235; עַל־כָּל־אֹדוֹת אֲשֶׁר for this very cause that, Jer 38. But just as the simple יַ֫עַן is used for יַ֫עַן אֲשֶׁר, so also the simple עַל־ with the perfect stands for עַל־אֲשֶׁר ψ 119136, Ezr 311; cf. עַל־בְּלִי Gn 3120 and מִבְּלִי Dt 2855 both with the perfect, equivalent to because... not.—Cf. further עֵ֫קֶב אֲשֶׁר Gn 2218, 265, 2 S 126, all with the perfect, and עֵ֫קֶב כִּי (2 S 1210 with the perfect; Am 412 with the imperfect) prop. in return for the fact that; similarly again the simple עֵ֫קֶב Nu 1424 with the perfect, and Dt 712, 820 with the imperfect; finally, מֵֽאֲשֶׁר Is 434 arising from the fact that,= because; תַּ֫חַת אֲשֶׁר 1 S 2621, &c., and תַּ֫חַת כִּי Dt 437, Pr 129 for the reason that.

 [158c]  Rem. 1. The preposition עַל־ (because of, on account of) with the infinitive (§114e) is frequently used as the equivalent of a full causal clause; cf. e.g. Am 13, 6, 13, 2:1, 6. Such a construction with the infinitive may, however, according to §114r, be continued by means of a finite verb, in which case עַל־ governs the verb as a conjunction; e.g. Am 19 עַל־הַסְגִּירָם... וְלֹא זָֽכְרוּ because they delivered up... and remembered not, &c.; 1:11, 2:4; without Wāw, Is 3014.

 [158d]  2. The choice of tense is regulated by the general principles stated in § 106 ff., viz. the perfect (cf. especially §106f) refers to causes already brought fully into effect, the imperfect to those which may contingently arise; cf. e.g. Dt 712, 820, 1 K 833, where the imperfect leaves the possibility still open that the persons addressed will perhaps escape the threatened punishments by avoiding disobedience.—Cf. further, §111h on the imperfect consecutive, and §112nn on the perfect consecutive in the apodosis to causal clauses.

  1. Also כִּֽי־עַל־כֵּן prop. for therefore, Gn 185, 198, 3310, 3826, Nu 1031, 1443, 2 S 1820 Qe, and אֲשֶׁר עַל־כֵּן Jb 3427, always mean for as much as.