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force in Coke's fifth essential for the existence of a corporation other than as a matter of convenience.^

Grant, now, that a corporation was legally called into being, what abilities and disabilities was it considered to have? Goke says:^ " When a corporation is duly created all other incidents are tacitly annexed — ... and therefore divers clauses subsequent in the charters are not of necessity, but only declaratory and might well be left out; as —

" 1st. By the same to have authority, ability, and capacity to purchase, but no clause is added that they may alien, etc., and it need not, for it is an incident.

2d. To sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded.

" 3d. To have a seal ; that is also declaratory, for when they are incorporated they may make or use what seal they will.

" 4th. To restrain them from aliening or devising but in certain form ; that is an ordinance testifying the king's desire, but it is but a precept and does not bind in law.

" 5th. That the survivors shall be a corporation ; that is a good clause to oust doubts and questions which might arise, the num- ber being certain.

" 6th. If the revenues increase, that they shall be used to increase the number of the poor, etc. ; that is also explanatory.

" 8th. To make ordinances ; that is requisite for the good order and government of the poor, etc., but not to the essence of the incorporatioa

" loth. The license to purchase in mortmain is necessary for the maintenance and support of the poor, for without revenues they cannot live, and without a license in mortmain they cannot lawfully purchase revenues, and yet that is not of the essence of the corporation, for the corporation is perfect without it."

This list of attributes laid down by Coke as necessarily belong- ing to all corporations is quoted with approval in " The Law of Corporations."' It is given by Blackstone in substance, though altered to the following form :*

The incidents which are tacitly annexed to every corporation as soon as it is duly erected are —

1 See Mayor of Stafford v, Bolton, i B. & P. 40.

< Sutton's Hospital Case, 10 Rep. 30, citing as authority 22 Edw. IV., Grants, 3a

» p. 16.

4 I Blackst. Com. 475 ; also in Wood's Inst, of the Laws of Eng., bk. i. ch. viii.