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dies; shall the plaintiff have an action? I say, No.” Paston, J.: “You have not shown that he is a common surgeon to cure such horses, and so, although he killed your horse by his medicines, you shall have no action against him without an assumpsit.” Newton, C.J.: “If I have a sore on my hand, and he applies a medicine to my heel, by which negligence my hand is maimed, still I shall not have an action unless he undertook to cure me.” The court accordingly decided that a traverse of the assumpsit made a good issue.[1]

It is believed that the view here suggested will explain the following passage in Blackstone, which has puzzled many of his readers: “If a smith’s servant lames a horse while he is shoeing him, an action lies against the master, but not against the servant.”[2] This is, of course, not law to-day, and probably was not law when written. Blackstone simply repeated the doctrine of the Year-Books.[3] The servant had not expressly assumed to shoe carefully; he was, therefore, no more liable than the surgeon, the barber, and the carpenter, who had not undertaken, in the cases already mentioned. This primitive notion of legal liability has, of course, entirely disappeared from the law. An assumpsit is no longer an essential allegation in these actions of tort, and there is, therefore, little or no semblance of analogy between these actions and actions of contract.

An express assumpsit was originally an essential part of the plaintiff’s case in another class of actions, namely, actions on the case against bailees for negligence in the custody of the things intrusted to them. This form of the action on the case originated later than the actions for active misconduct, which have been already considered, but antedates, by some fifty years, the action of assumpsit. The normal remedy against a bailee was detinue. But there were strong reasons for the introduction of a concurrent remedy by an action on the case. The plaintiff in detinue might be defeated by the defendant’s wager of law; if he had paid in advance for the safe custody of his property, he could not recover in detinue his money, but only the value of the property; detinue could not be brought in the King’s Bench by original writ; and the

procedure generally was less satisfactory than that in case. It is

  1. See to the same effect Y.B. 48 Ed. III. 6, pl. 11; 11 R. II. Fitz. Ab. Act. on Case, 37; Rast. Ent. 463 b.
  2. 1 Bl. Com. 431.
  3. Y.B. 11 Ed. IV. 6, pl. 10; 1 Roll. Ab. 94, pl. 1; 1 Roll. Ab. 95, pl. 1.