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HARVARD

LAW REVIEW.

VOL. II. MAY 15. 1888. No. 2.

THE HISTORY OF ASSUMPSIT.

II. — Implied Assumpsit.

NOTHING impresses the student of the Common Law more than its extraordinary conservatism. The reader will easily call to mind numerous rules in the law of Real Property and Pleading which illustrate the persistency of archaic reverence for form and of scholastic methods of interpretation. But these same characteristics will be found in almost any branch of the law by one who carries his investigations as far back as the beginning of the seventeenth century. The history of Assumpsit, for example, although the fact seems to have escaped general observation, furnishes a convincing illustration of the vitality of mediaeval conceptions.

We have had occasion, in the preceding part of this paper, to see that an express assumpsit was for a long time essential in the actions of tort against surgeons or carpenters, and bailees. It also appeared that in the action of tort for a false warranty the vendor's affirmation as to quality or title was not admissible, before the time of Lord Holt, as a substitute or an express under- taking. We are quite prepared, therefore, to find that the action of Assumpsit proper was, for generations, maintainable only upon an express promise. Furthermore, Assumpsit would not lie in certain cases even though there were an express promise. For example, a defendant who promised to pay a sum certain in ex-