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Page:Illustrations of Indian Botany, Vol. 1.djvu/43

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1. A. Arnollianum. Leaves sprinkled with rigid hairs : peduncles, procumbent, surculose, many flowered: carpels many seeded.— Plate No. 3.

2. A. Wightianum. Leaves sprinkled with rigid hairs, more abundant on the veins: peduncles an erect scape, terminating in an 8-12 flowered raceme ; carpels, by abortion, one seeded.

Both these species are found on the Malabar Coast, the former I also found at Courtallum, where the accompanying drawing was made. They frequent moist shady places in woods, in Courtallum, and under hedges on the banks of wet ditches in Malabar, flowering July and August, perhaps also at other seasons.


Sepals 5 persistent ; 2 exterior, 3 interior; estivation imbricative. Petals 5 deciduous, hypogynous, alertnating with the sepals, two with the margin crisped, estivation imbricate. Stamens hypogynous, numerous, all on one side, in several series, monadelphous, all fertile. Filaments short, united at the base into a short somewhat flattened androphore. Anthers linear, elongated, 2 celled ; mucronate at the point. Torus none. Ovaries 3, free, villous, 1 celled, 1 styled, 1 ovuled. Ovule ascending from the base, arilled. Styles simple, terminal, filiform, glabrous, during estivation incumbent on the stamens, stigmas simple.

Diffuse climbing shrubs, branches glabrous, round, purplish coloured, the young shoots somewhat flattened. Leaves alternate, coriacious, glabrous, smooth, petioled, exstipulate, repando-serrated, the serralures mucronate, feather-nerved, nerves paraded, simple. Petioles channeled, dilated at the base, half embracing the stalk. Spikes panicled, terminal, and from the axils of the extreme leaves, and equalling them in length. Flowers sessile, secund, bibracteate at the base.

S. Castaneifolia. — ( Vahl : /3 Grahamii Arnott.) Ceylon in woods near the banks of rivers. — Plate No. 4.

In the species here represented the sepals are densely clothed on both sides with appressed shining silky hairs.

Dr. Arnott distinguishes two varieties of this plant, a division which I adopt for the present but not without hesitation, as I think it probable, for the reasons already stated that Vahl's Castaneifolia and Arnott's f3 Grahamii, will be found different species. It is to me a subject of regret, that Dr. Arnott did not republish Vahl's character and description along with his own, as affording an additional means of determining, by comparing other species, known to exist, with both the old and reformed character.



1. Acrotrema Arnottianum, natural size. — 2. Flower front view, and opened to show the stamens. — 3. Calyx, ovaries, and styles. — 4. Anthers, back and front view. — 5. Side view of an ovary cut vertically, and front view of a carpel full grown, showing the number and pendulous direction of the seeds. — 6. A seed with its arillus. All more or less magnified.


1. Flowering branch of Schumacheria castaneifolia natural size. — 2. Flower opened and seen from above, showing calyx, corolla, stamens, and ovaries, all in situ. — 3. Stamens removed.— 4. Anthers, back and front view. — 5. Ovary opened, showing the solitary ovule. —6. Seed and arillus. — 7. Immature seed, cut vertically, all more or less magnified. The outline below represents a full grown leaf natural size.


In this order a ternary, quaternary or quinary arrangement of the parts of the flower prevails, and both sepals and petals are coloured or petaloid, so as to be almost indistinguishable, and all are equally deciduous, varying in number from 6 to about 30, or more, in several rows, all hypogynous. Stamens numerous, distinct, hypogynous, anthers adnate, long, ovaries numerous, simple, 1 -celled, arranged on all sides of an elongated torus, above the stamens, ovules few, or numerous, suspended or erect, styles short, stigmas simple. Fruit consisting of numerous carpels, but varying in their character, being either dry or succulent, dehiscent or indehiscent, distinct or partially conate, arranged on an elongated axis, and sometimes terminated by an elongated point or membranous wing. Seeds solitary, or several attached to the inner edge of the carpel, from which, when ripe, they are often suspended by a long slender umbilical cord, embryo minute, at the base of a fleshy albumen. Trees or shrubs, many of the former of great size, leaves alternate, not dotted, coriacious, entire, distinctly articulated with the stem, with deciduous stipules, which, when young, are rolled together enclosing the leaves like those of Ficus. Flowers large, solitary, many of them strongly odoriferous. Scales of the leaf-bud formed of stipules, either placed face to face or rolled up.

Affinities. This order is nearly allied to Dilleniacece, from which it is principally distinguished by the petaloid, deciduous sepals, and the predominance of the ternary, not quinary