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Page:Illustrations of Indian Botany, Vol. 1.djvu/48

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14
ILLUSTRATIONS OF INDIAN BOTANY.


Native of Ceylon whence my specimens were communicated by Colonel Walker.

Apparently a shrub, with smallish (3 or 3| inches long, by 1| broad) coriacacious leaves flowers, large in proportion, petals 4 or 5 times the length of the stamens and column, ovaries, as in all the other species I have examined, clothed with whitish hair.

7. M. glauca. (R.W.) Very ramous ; branches rigid, short, glabrous, except the extreme shoots : leaves glaucous beneath, obovate, much attenuated towards the base, ending in a short blunt acumen : stipules and spathes whitish, silky, petals 6, spreading, obovate : stamens numerous ; filaments nearly equalling the short anthers, which together, scarcely exceed the pedicel of the column of fructification, and are about six times shorter than the petals : ovaries numerous, densely congested towards the point of the column ; styles recurved at the point only : fruit —

A native of Ceylon, where it was found by Colonel Walker, who communicated specimens, but without fruit.

This like the other Ceylon species, judging from specimens only, has more the appearance of a shrub than a tree : the leaves rarely exceed an inch and half in length, and are nearly as much in breadth across the broadest part, near the point, these are borne, two or three together ; on the extremities of numerous short rigid branches. The most distinctive mark however of the species is, the short anthers in proportion to the filaments. Generally the anthers are three or four times the length of the filaments, but here, they scarcely exceed that standard, and then both barely equal the length of the elongated pedicel of the ovarial column,

C. Petals in a quaternery order,

8. M. excelsa. (Blume. Magnolia excelsa 'Wall, Tent. Fl. Nepal). Leaves oblong, elliptic, acuminated, glaucous beneath, stipules and spathes, tomentose, deep rusty brown coloured, petals 12 in a treble series, (quaternery) stamens numerous, one third the length of the petals, filaments very short: ovaries, small, 4ovuled: carpels, sub-globose, small, warty, one seeded; seed enclosed in red fleshy pulp.

Nepal. — Sheapore hill at an elevation of about 7000 feet above the sea. Flowering in March-— fruit ripe in October— Wall.

This magnificent tree attains the height of from 50 to 80 feet, and is most remarkably limited in its station being, Dr. Wallich informs us, confined to a single spot on mount Sheapore. The wood is highly prized by the natives of Nepal, where it is sold under the name of Champ.

? 9. M. Rheedii. (R. W.) Arborious, glabrous : leaves elliptic, oblong, acuminated, attenuated at the base : flowers many petaled, (about 20) in a quaternery (?) order, the outer series the largest, obtuse, the interior ones cuspidate: ovaries numerous, congested; styles caducous, leaving a smooth, circular, shield-like scar on the apex: ovales numerous (10-12) : carpels large, approximated, rough, marked with numerous prominent warts, about four seeded; seeds triangular, testa hard, black, enveloped in red fleshy pulp.

Champacam Rheede Hort. Mai. 1. tab. 19. M. Champaca partly Lin. Willd. DeCandolle, not Blume.

A native of Malabar and the more elevated hills of the Peninsula, Putney mountains at an elevation of about 5000 feet. Shevaroy hills 4500 — on both of which I gathered specimens.

I am enabled by means of cultivated specimens of the Champaca, which correspond in almost every particular with Blume's character, so far as it goes, to separate this species, though on characters less precise and satisfactory than I could have wished, owing to my specimens not being in flower. The ovaries and carpels afford, in the present state of our knowledge, the best distinctive characters, the polished shield-like the ovaries is very characteristic, while the large prominent warts of the carpels are scarcely less so.

? 10. M. nilagirica. (Zenker) Leaves elliptic, glabrous, acuminated, acute at the base : stipules and spathes silky: petals 8 in two verticels: stamens shorter than the column of fructification : ovaries numerous, 1-ovuled : carpels one seeded, warty.

Neelgherries in woods. Flowers white.

This species associates in so many points with my plant, that I suspect a more careful examination will unite them. The points of difference are, that in M. nilagirica, the spathes are described as single in place of double, the corolla as 8 petaled, ranged in quaternery series, 4 and 4, in place of 6-9 in ternary order, and lastly, as having ovaries with solitary ovules, in place 4 in each.

§ 2. One bractial and two calycine spathes.

11. M. Pulneyensis. (R.W.) Glabrous, leaves elliptic, or sub-obovate, acuminated, acute at the base : stipules and spathes, clothed with silky appressed hairs : petals 6-9, ranged in ternary order, exterior ones obovate, interior when nine, lanciolate: stamens numerous mucronate, nearly equalling the column of fructification : ovaries numerous, 4-ovuled : fruit —

Woods, Pulney mountains at an elevation of 6000 feet, flowering in September.

A handsome, tall, straight, tree, with ascending scarcely spreading branches. The leaves vary in their form, being elliptic in some and passing into obovate in others, coriacious, glabrous. Peduncles shorter than the petiols, thick, hairy, marked with two rings, where the spathes have separated, stamens numerous, caducous, except two, which often remain, long after the others, attached to the middle pedicel, ovaries numerous, ovules, very constantly, four, suspended.

? M. Lanuginosa.. (Wall. Tent. Fl. Nepal.) Every where clothed with greyish woolly pubescence : leaves oval, obtusely acuminated, slightly attenuated and acute at the base : stipules and spathes, tomentose ; petals about 12 in a ternary (?) order : column of fruc- tification nearly twice the length of the stamens : ovaries numerous, carpels sub-globose, 2 or 3 seeded.

Woods of Nepal, flowering in April and May.

This species is readily distinguished by being every w'here clothed with woolly pubescence. As already observed I have referred it doubtfully to this section, on account of its supposed double spathe, two being figured, and mentioned in the description.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE.

5th.—Magnoliaceae.

1 and 6. — 1. Flowering branch of Michelia Pulneyensis, and 6, spike of ripe fruit of M. Rheedii, natural size. — 2. Flower bud, the exterior, or bractial spathe removed, and showing the 2 calycine spathes ready to drop off.— 3. Torus, stamens, and column of fructification.— 4. Anther, front view.— 5. Ovary, entire, and cut vertically, to show the pendulous ovules. — 7- 8. Seeds, entire, and cut transversely, all more or less magnified. — 9. Seed, natural size, covered with pulp, and 10 (by mistake also 9) the same (the pulp removed) somewhat magnified to show its triangular form.