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ILLUSTRATIONS OF INDIAN BOTANY.

which they are thus associated, we cannot find one other important circumstance of agreement. It is usual to station them near Berberacece or Anonacce; but what their affinity really is with such orders it is difficult to conceive, even if we admit their relationship to Schizandrece. But if we look at them with an unprejudiced eye, we cannot fail to be struck with their general resemblance to Smilacccs among Endogens, differing in little except their Dicotyledonous, more highly developed, embryo, and exogenous stem. In the next place, their floral envelopes, although in two rows, and therefore technically composed of both calyx and corolla, agree altogether with the biseriate calyx of some Poh/gonacece, such as Uumex. Thirdly, the absence of zones from the wood assimilates them to Columnosae. In short, look at these plants in what way we will, their relation seems to be in all important particulars with Imperfectce. I, therefore, station them here at the peril of offending all the prejudices that have been gradually growing up since the appearance of the Genera plant arum of Jussieu in 1789."

The following extract from the same work, (Lindley's Natural System of Botany) explains the changes of position which the seed undergoes, in its progress from the ovule, to the mature fruit.

"According to Aug. de St. Hilaire, the ovule of Cissampelos is attached to the middle of the side of a straight ovary, which after fecundation gradually incurves its apex until the style touches the base of the pericarp, when the two surfaces being thus brought into contact unite, and a drupe is formed, the seed of which is curved like a horse-shoe, and the cavity of which is divided by a spurious incomplete dissepiment, consisting of two plates : the attachment of the seed is at the top of the false dissepiment, on each side of which it extends equally. PI. Usuelles, No. 35. The whole order requires careful revision by means of living plants, and is well worth the especial attention of some Indian botanist."

Geographical Distribution. As already stated, this is mainly a tropical order, the species of which are, with a few exceptions, natives of America, and Asia. Only five are known from Africa, and Siberia has one. Mr. Hoyle mentions some species as extending up to the foot of the Himalayas, and states that, Cocculus laurifolius is only found at elevations, on these mountains, of from 3,000 to 5,000 feet. Of the number of species referable to this order, it seems at present impossible to do more than make a guess, owing to the uncertainty which prevails in regard to them : many having been described under two or three different names, or vice versA, two or three under one. Dr. Lindley estimates them under 100, Roxburgh describes 19, Blume gives characters of 16 from Java, exclusive of allied genera. Dr. Arnott and myself, after reducing some species enumerated in Botanical works, assigned 11 as the number referable to the Peninsular flora : one or two I have since added, but even with these additions, I doubt whether the continental flora, so far as yet known, contains more than 25 species. Dr. Wallich, in his list of Indian plants, enumerates 31, but not all continental, and as some of them have, on more careful examination than he had time to bestow, been found untenable, I believe, my estimate though moderate, will be found rather to exceed than fall short of the actual number, on excluding Stauntonia, which Mr. R. Brown does not consider a member of this order.

Properties and Uses. This order though of limited extent, and having nothing attractive in its appearance, yet claims for itself, much consideration, on account of the valuable properties many of its species is known to contain. To it we are indebted for the deservedly esteemed Colombo root, the produce of Cocculus palmatus, so valuable on account of its tonic, and antiseptic properties : the Pareira brava, which was at one time esteemed so powerful a lithontriptic, that it was expected to render useless the operation of Lithotomy, and is still considered in Bazil, its native country, as a most useful remedy in all affections of the urinary passages. To this order also, we are indebted for the Cocculus indicus, so well known in commerce, but for purposes of such doubtful propriety, that its employment by the brewer to adulterate Ale or Beer, is prohibited under no less a penalty than £"200 and £500, upon the seller. The Gulimcha, of this country, so strongly recommended as a febrifuge, (see Calcutta Medical Transactions,) is equally derived from this family. Bitter and tonic properties, in short, seem to pervade every member of the order. The Cocculus (menispermum) palmatus was formerly successfully cultivated in Madras, but being confined to a male plant, was soon lost, it is how-