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N. O. RANUNCULACEÆ. 33

glabrous on the uppermost part, pubescent from minute adpressed reversed hairs. Basal leaves unknown; intermediate and upper leaves scattered, petioled; petioles slender, up to 5 cm. long; blades shining, bright green above, pale below, glabrous or scantily pubescent in the nerves below, cordate, rotundate in outline, with a wide sinus or reniform, 3-partite to 5/6 (or the small leaves of the branches 5-lobed to the middle), intermediate divisions narrow, obovate-cuneate, almost 5 cm. long, up to 1·8 cm. broad, lateral divisions trapezoid, up to 3·5 cm. long, unequally divaricate-2-lobed to the middle, all coarsely dentate, teeth apiculate. Inflorescence slightly pubescent; panicle few-flowered, says Hooker. Flowers large, greenish-blue (Hooker); bracts foliaceous 3-lobed, lobes sparingly dentate; pedicels long, more or less red need, near the flower. Sepals slightly pubescent, uppermost helmet-shaped, helmet semi-orbicular elliptic in profile, 18-20 mm. high, 18-20 mm. from tip to base, 12 mm. broad, lateral oblique, orbicular-ovate, shortly and broadly clawed up to 16 mm. long, 10-12 mm. broad; lower deflexed, broad elliptic sub-obtuse, up to 16 mm. long. Nectaries glabrous, claw erect, oblong, shortly spurred from the top, 6 mm. long, lip broad, 2-lobed. Filaments glabrous, 8-9 mm. long, winged to or beyond the middle, wings gradually or suddenly contracted. Carpels 5, obliquely oblong, sparingly pubescent (Stapf). Follicles 1 - 1 1/2 in. long, glabrous (Hooker). Testa plaited (Hooker).

Properties and uses:—This is, according to Griffith, the source of the celebrated Bhi or Bis poison of the Mishmis.



The pharmacology of Indaconitine and Bikhaconitine.

Indaconitine, an alkaloid obtained from Aconitum Chasmanthum, yields, on partial hydrolysis, acetic acid and benzoyl-pseudoaconine; the latter substance splits up on further hydrolysis into benzoic acid and pseudoaconine.

Bikhaconitine, from A. Spicatum (A. ferox, var. Spicatum), yields, under the same conditions, acetic acid, veratric acid, and a pseudoaconine, identical with that obtained from indaconitine.