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than the sepals. Ovaries 2-5, rarely more, many-ovuled, style short, stigma pointed. Follicles 1/3 in. long, flat, tipped with the persistent style. Seeds 6-8 (Collett).

Part used:—The root.

Uses:—The root is said to be poisonous. In Siberia, it is used to drive away bugs and fleas. "Under the name of a nearly allied plant (Actæa spicata), I have already referred to this plant, and I have done so chiefly with the view of attracting attention to these useful, but apparently neglected plants." (Watt).

Garrod in his Materia Medica, calls Cimicifuga racemosa, Linn., the Black Snake Root, and remarks that it is a remedy much used in America. He gives the dose of the tincture as 30 to 40 minims. He remarks:—"Its use is said to have been attended with much success in rheumatic fever, in chorea, and in lumbago, and in some forms of puerperal hypochondriasis.

There seems every reason to expect that the Indian species, which differs from C. racemosa only very slightly, will be found to possess all its medicinal virtues. C. racemosa is chiefly prescribed in the form of tincture and employed in rheumatic affections, dropsy, the early stage of phthisis, and chronic bronchial diseases. Externally, a strong tincture has recently been used to reduce inflammations. See (Year-Book of Pharmacy, 1872). The root contains a resinous active principle which has been termed Cimicifugin or Macrotin. In its action this drug resembles hellibore on the one hand, and colchicum on the other. It is most useful in acute rheumatism, and a powder of the root is perhaps the best mode in which to give the drug, in doses of 20 to 30 grains. (Royle's Mat. Med. by Harley.)

A poultice prepared from the fresh leaves is used here, and said to be very useful in rheumatic affection of joints (Surgn. Meadows, Barisal).

28. Pæonia Emodi, Wall., I. 30.

Syn:—Pæonia officinalis, Hf. and T.