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nerves and reticulated veinlets very prominent beneath. Petioles 3-4 in. Flowers sessile in small dense rounded heads, which are long-stalked and umbellately or racemosely arranged in the axils of the leaves. Pedicels yellow-tomentose; bracts beneath the flowers numerous, small, imbricated. Sepals rounded, persistent. Petals ovate, spreading. Female fl.:—Carpels hairy, styles filiform, reflexed. Ripe carpels (Drupes) l-3, globose, 34 in., densely tomentose, brown.

Part used:—The root.

Use:—The root is extensively used in the hospitals of the Madras Presidency as an efficient bitter tonic. A writer, quoted by Christie, says of Ceylon that this root is viewed "as a very good substitute for Calumba. I have used it with good results in the form of tincture and infusion. It has also antiseptic properties to a great extent, and can be used for dressing wounds and ulcers." The wood is of a bright yellow colour, and is valued as a bitter tonic by the Sinhalese.

Dr. Moodeen Sheriff considered the action of the drug to be "antipyretic, antiperiodic, tonic and stomachic," and useful "in slight cases of continued and intermittent fevers, debility, and certain forms of dyspepsia. It may be used in place of Cinchona, Gentian or Calumba, called "False Calumba." A yellow dye is also obtained from it.—Trimen. "Used in diabetes, and also in cases of suppression of lochia." (Watt).

43. Cocculus villosus, DC. h.f.b.i., I. 101.

Syn.:—Menispermum hirsutum, Linn; Holopeira villosa, leviscula and auriculata, Miers.

In the Concan the Vaids give this plant the Sanskrit name of Vana-tiktika. Pâtâlgarudi, Vatsâdani (Sansk.).

Vern.:—Jamti-ki-bel, hier, dier, (H.); Kursan, Zamir (Sind); Vasana-vela Hundir, Tânvel (Mar.); Wassan-wel, parwell, (Bomb.); Vevdi (Guj) Vadhino vel (Porebunder) Kâttukkodi (Tam.); Dusari-tige, Chipura-tige, Katletige (Tel.).

Habitat:—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, from