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coloration is produced, a similar result being given by the base with strong sulphuric acid in which a crystal of potassium chlorate has been dissolved.

The hydrochloride gives a greyish-blue, green, brown, and finally black coloration, with a solution of 2 or 3 drops of 40 per cent, formalin in 3 C C. of concentrated sulphuric acid ; with strong sulphuric acid, especially in the presence of potassium nitrate, or with fuming nitric and sulphuric acids in the presence of potassium dichromate, a brown coloration. The hydrochloride produces on the tongue at first a burning and then a numbing sensation. The alkaloid is a tetanus poison, similar to thebaine— (J. Ch. S. LXXXVIII, part I., p. 368).

60. P. somniferum, Linn, h.f.b.i., i. 117. Roxb. Fl. Ind. II. 571.

Sans.:—Apoka (Apiura), Ahiphena (foam of a serpent); Saphenaka (foamy).

Vern.:—Nabatul-khash-khash (Arab); Koknar (Pers.); Post, khaskbas-ka per (Hind.); Khash-kbash-ka-jhar (Dec.); Gash a gasha-chedi, postaka chedi (Tam.); Gasagasala-chettu, posta- kaya-chettu (Teh); Kasha-kashach-cheti (Mai.); Khasa-khasi- gida (Kan); Poshta, poshtar-gochh, afima (Beng.) ; Khasa- khasa-chen jhada (Mar/, ; Khas kbasnu-jhada (Guz.) ; Bhin- bin, bh-airi-bin (Barm) : Khasakhasi-chenjhada (Bom.).

An annual herb, with a milky juice; rarely branched, 2-4 ft., glaucous, simple, usually quite glabrous. Leaves oblong, amplexicaul, lobed, toothed and serrate, sometimes ovate-oblong or linear-oblong Flowers large white, on long peduncles, purple or scarlet. Sepals glabrous. Filaments slightly dilated. Ovary one-celled. Stigma discoid, with radiating lobes opposite the placentas which project into the cell Capsule 1 in. diam., stalked, globose, glabrous, stigmatic rays 5-12, persistent, have each a small valve under the lobes, through which the innumerable, fine, white, delicious, oily seeds escape. There are black seeds also, say Hooker f. and Thorn., but I have never seen them on this side of India.

Cultivated throughout India. The largest quantity comes to Bombay from Malwa.

Use:— The medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of opium and its preparations are too well-known to be described here.