properties are due to the roots containing bikhaconitine, pseudo-aconitine, or indaconitine.
The non-poisonous Aconites, the active principles of which are either Atisine or Palmatisine, are (i) A. heterophyllum, Wall.; (ii) A. palmatum; (iii) A. rotundifolium; (iv) A. violaceum.
The poisonous aconites are (i) A. falconeri, (ii) A. laciniatum; (iii) A. lethale; (iv) A. spicatum; (v) A. deinorrhizum; (vi) A. Balfourii; (vii) A. Chasmanthum; (viii) A. soongaricum.
12. Aconitum lycotonum, Linn. h. f. br. i., I. 28.
Vern.:—Bika (H); Khanik-El-Zeb(Arab.).
Habitat:—Himalaya, from Chitral to Kumaon, mostly in forests, locally abundant, from 5,000—12,000 ft. Kashmir.
Root perennial, elongate, more or less cylindric, ultimately breaking up into separate or anastomosing strands. Stem erect, simple, 3-6 ft., glabrous or pubescent, much branched. Leaves palmately deeply 5-9-lobed, 6-10 in. diam., lobes cuneate-ovate; lower leaves long-petioled, upper sessile. Racemes branched, long, tomentose, bracts minute. Flowers pale yellow or dull purple, variable in size; helmet with a short beak and long cylindrical dorsal prominence. Follicles 3, spreading; testa plaited.
Uses:—This species also yields much of the aconite of European commerce.
Dr. Stapf writes:—The root does not appear to be used medicinally, and its chemistry is unknown. Dr. Jowett's notes quoted by Dr. Watt, in Agric. Ledger 1902, No. 3, p. 89, refer to the chemistry of the European A. Lycotonum.
13. A. palmatum, Don. D. Prodr. h. f. br. i., I. 28.
Vern.:—Bikhma, Vakhama (Bomb.); Vakhamo (Guzr). Bishawa (H.)
Habitat:—Alpine Himalaya of Nepal, Sikkim and the adjoining part of South Tibet, from 10,000-16,000 feet.