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beaked, 20-24 mm. high, 18-24 mm. long from tip to the base, 10-12 mm. wide (seen from the side), lateral margin very slightly concave or almost straight, lateral sepals contiguous with the helmet, obliquely orbicular-quadrate, not clawed, 18-20 mm. long; lower sepals obliquely oblong or elliptic—obtuse to acute, 12-15 mm. long. Nectaries glabrous, extinguisher-shaped; claw erect, or the upper-end more or less leaning forward, 16-18 mm. long; hood sub-cylindric, 4-8 mm. long, oblique to almost horizontal, top gibbous posteriorly, honey-gland occupying the gibbosity or the whole top, lip extremely short, crenulate, very broad. Filaments glabrous, 8 mm. long, narrowly winged to or beyond the middle, wings gradually alternated. Carpels 5, subcontiguous in the flower, but soon diverging, narrowly oblong, gradually passing into the short style, quite glabrous. Follicles subcontiguous or somewhat diverging in the upper part, oblong, obliquely truncate, 2·5-3 cm. long, 5-6 mm. broad, loosely reticulate. Seeds blackish, obovoid, about 3 mm. long, round in cross-section, obscurely winged along the rhaphe, transversely lamellate, lamellæ dark, undulate.

Uses:—Nothing definite is as yet known of the medicinal properties of this root. It is believed to be non-poisonous as well as tonic and antiperiodic.

It has also earned some repute in the treatment of cholera (Sakharam Arjun).

From the roots of this, an alkaloid, named Palmatisine has been isolated at the Imperial Institute, which crystallises well, and in some respects resembles atisine. J. Ch. S. 1905T, 1655.

14. A. ferox, Wall. h. f. br. i., I. 28.

Habitat:—Temperate, sub-Alpine Himalaya, from Sikkim to Garhwal.

Sanskrit:—Visha (Poison); Vatsanâbha (resembling the navel of children).

Vern.:—Bish, bachnak, mitha zahar; Singyabish; telyabish (H.); Kat bish, Mitha bish, Sringibish, (Beng.); Bachnâg (Mar.); Vashanavi (Tam.); Vasanabhi, nabhi (Tel.); Vatsanabhi (Mal.); Vasanabhi (Kan.), Shingadio-Vachnâg (Guz.).