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Page:Littell's Living Age - Volume 130.djvu/712

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SERVIA.

As Montenegro was the unconquered remnant of the old Servian empire, therefore the little principality in the Black Mountain may, in that sense, be held as its truest representative. Modern Servia however, on account alike of name, resources, and geographical position, claims continuity of national life with the Servia of the fourteenth century. The motto of the princes of the present house of Obrenovitch is, "Time and my rights." Their arms represent a white cross on a red field, and on the cross are inscribed two dates, 1389 — 1815; between them lies a drawn sword. The first date commemorates the fatal fight of Kossova, when the Servians, overthrown by the Ottoman arms, became a subject people; the second marks the year when Milosch Obrenovitch went from his dwelling among the mountains of the interior to the church of Takovo to raise anew the standard of revolt. The drawn sword between the dates may be taken to indicate that the attitude of the subject Serbs on the Danube during four long centuries of Turkish rule was not one of servile submission, but of a nourished antagonism. What gives importance to the revolt of 1815 is that it resulted in the permanent acknowledgment of Servia by the Porte as a self-governing though still tributary power, under native rulers. Servia, restored to the Serbs, brought back with it the hope at some future time of entire independence, and of an extension of territory co-extensive with the old Servian kingdom. Nor do the free and warlike inhabitants of the Black Mountain entertain any jealousy of the national aspirations of their brethren on the Danube. The two Serb powers are in close alliance, and between the families of the respective princes there exists a cordial friendship.




The Mammals of the Assyrian Sculptures. — The Rev. W. Houghton, who is a well-known contributor to this journal, recently read a paper on the above subject before the Society of Biblical Archæology (May 2, 1876). Beginning with the order Quadrumana, Mr. Houghton said two species were represented. He referred to the absurdly human appearance of the monkeys of the sculptures: the face is that of a man with a fringe of whiskers round it neatly trimmed, but one figure more true to nature indicates the species of monkey — viz., Presbyter entellus, the hoonuman of India, or some closely allied species. There was also another species, the Macacus silenus. The Assyrian word for monkey was u-du-mu, the same as the Hebrew word Adam, "a man;" compare our "anthropoid ape." Of the order Feræ there are mentioned the lion, the hyena (in Accadian lig-bar-ra, "striped dog"); the bear, Ursus Syriacus, especially as being of various colors, and the leopard. Other wild animals were the hare, Lepus Sinaiticus {ka-zin-na, "face of the desert"); the wild bull, which was clearly a Bos and not a Bubalus, most probably Bos primigenius of the tertiary period; the wild goat (Capra Sinaitica), the 'Asiatic steinboc or ibex; the wild sheep (Caprovis orientalis), the wild deer (Cervus Mesopotamicus), and other species, Cervus elaphus and Cervus Maral, or Persian deer; the gazelle (G. dorcas); the wild ass Equus hemippus); the elephant (Elephas Indicus); the rhinoceros, or, as it is called on the black obelisk of Shalmaneser, "the ox from the river Saceya;" and the wild boar (Sus scrofa).

Popular Science Review.




The Visible Horizon. — A point of some scientific interest has just been argued in the High Court of Justice. It was contended by the solicitor-general that the three miles' limit of territorial waters was of modern origin, and by Sir R. Phillimore that it was due to that being the distance a cannon-ball would reach from the shore. There can, however, be no doubt that the limit was recognized long before the invention of gunpowder.

Three miles is the distance of the offing or visible horizon to a person six feet in height standing on the shore. It is natural to suppose that the early maritime peoples of Europe would lay claim to the sea as far as the eye could reach. This distance they would find by experience was just three miles, and it can be proved mathematically to be correct. Measured by this standard — a tall man, usually taken as six feet high — the distance is invariable for all time, places, and peoples; measured by a cannon-ball, it is constantly varying, and now ought to be five miles rather than three. The fact that the distance depends on both ocular and mathematical demonstration, and is not subject to improvement in gunnery, is the best explanation of its origin and application.

Dulwich, May 8. B. G. Jenkins.
Nature.




Provost Cazenove has retired from the editorship of the Church Quarterly, but will continue to contribute to that periodical. The new editor is Canon Chichester.

Athenæum.