Page:Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet vol 2 (1876).djvu/113

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BIRDS OF THE UPPER ZONES.

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grosbeak (Hesperiphona speculigera[1]), the latter preferring the juniper bushes, the berries of which are its favourite food.

In the alpine region we found the red-winged wall-creeper (Tichodroma muraria), for ever climbing up the rocks; a large species of Carpodacus with a gay note, two alpine choughs (Fregilus alpinus, Fregilus graculus), the martin (Chelidon sp.), the velvety blue stonethrush (Grandala cælicola), the mountain pipit (Anthus rosaceus) and two kinds of hedge-sparrows (Accentor Nipalensis, A. rubeculoides), the former of which is a great songster. A little lower down, among the bushes were the beautiful lesser titmouse (Leptopœcile Sophiæ) of a metallic violet hue, the deep pink Carpodacus rubicilla, Calliope pectoralis, the reed-warbler (Schænicola sp.), with long pink tail feathers; and in the open valleys the linnet (Linota brevirostris), Montifringilla Adamsi, and Montifrilla sp.

Among the Columbæ and Gallinaceæ in the alpine region we noticed the rock-dove (Columba rupestris); another kind of mountain-pigeon, the wary Columba leuconota, among the wildest and most inaccessible cliffs of the upper zone; the great snow-partridge (Megaloperdix Thibetanus), called Kunmo by the Tangutans, and Hailik by the Mongols. Not far off, in the clumps of rhododendron and caragana, the dusky Impeyan grouse (Tetraophasis obscurus) and partridge (Perdix sp.), distinct from the Mongol species. In the lower tree-belt the gallinaceous

  1. H. carneipes, Hodgs.