thus increasing to a wonderful extent the flavour and fragrance of the drink. By means of this utensil coffee can be made to perfection in so short a time as two minutes, which shows how easy and rapid the process is when performed by means of this utensil. They are kept in various sizes, and made of various materials, and vary in price from 5s. 6d. upwards.
Freezing Machines.—Ice is now so much used at English tables that it has become a necessary of household economy, and dessert ices follow summer dinners as a matter of course. Dessert ices are, by modern invention and ingenuity, placed within the reach of most housekeepers, and it is easy to make ices by one of the patent freezing machines, which afford a quick, economical and most simple method of freezing. Two ices, or an ice and an ice pudding can be made at the same time by these machines. The mixture to be iced is placed in the tubes or cylinders; outside these tubes rough ice and salt are placed, the ice being pounded, and the salt and a little water added; the piston is then worked up and down. This movement produces a constant change and agitation of the ice and salt, which is compelled to pass round and round the agitator. Two stirrers are attached to the piston, and work at the same time with it; these "stirrers" go up and down inside the cylinders, and stir up and mix the cream or water mixture undergoing the freezing process. This agitation of the cream, etc., is necessary to prevent the future ice from being lumpy and snowy. When the freezing is complete the stirrers are taken out of the cylinders, and the ice pressed down firmly by a presser; this moulds it to the form of the cylinder. It is set by keeping it still in the machine for a short time longer, still working the piston up and down; it is then turned out, beautifully iced and moulded. The same ice and salt which freezes the dessert ices will afterwards freeze a block of pure water ice, or may be used to cool wine.
These freezing machines are made in oak, and are supplied in three sizes, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, to freeze and mould 1, 2 and 3 pints respectively, at £2 10s., £3 5s., and £3 15s. These are to be used with ice and salt only.
Refrigerators are very necessary in a household, as they ensure both comfort and economy, and, indeed, promote good health in the summer. They consist essentially of cupboards or chests, lined with zinc, and kept cool by ice. The ice receptacle, however, should have no connexion with the storage part, as the food should be kept in a cold, dry atmosphere. A properly-made refrigerator consists of a wood cupboard or chest, lined inside with zinc, and having a tight fitting door; between the zinc lining and wood casing there should be a layer of insulating material, such as thick felt (the cheapest), or better, asbestos, or its artificial substitute, slag-wool. This insulating layer prevents loss by too rapid dissipation of the cold by contact with the hotter outside