hardened particles rise to the surface they entangle and carry with them all the insoluble substances with which they come in contact; this forms the scum and the filtering medium, through which the jelly must be afterwards passed and repassed until clear. The jelly should always be allowed to simmer for a short time after it reaches boiling point, but it must on no account be whipped, stirred, or otherwise disturbed. A little lemon-juice or any other acid assists in the coagulation of the albumen.
Straining Jelly.—For this purpose a jelly-stand and bag are desirable but not indispensable, for an inverted chair and a clean linen cloth may be made to do duty instead. Whichever is used, it must be previously scalded to prevent the jelly setting while running through; and on a cold day, when the jelly runs through slowly, it is advisable to place a basin of hot water in the midst of it to keep it warm. The jelly-bag or cloth must never be squeezed, as a very slight pressure will force through the particles of scum, and thus make the jelly cloudy.
Creams.—The term cream is used to describe compounds of cream and fruit, fruit-purée, etc., or custards, variously flavoured, stiffened with gelatine, and more or less elaborately decorated. For this purpose double cream is required, that is, cream skimmed off milk that has stood for 24 hours instead of 12, or been well drained from the milk after being separated. Cream is more quickly whipped to a stiff froth when cold, and the air introduced by whipping should be as cold as possible. The process should not be continued one moment after the proper degree of stiffness is obtained; great care being needed in this respect in warm weather, when the cream, if over-whipped, is apt to turn rather quickly to butter. Apart from the manipulation of the cream, an important factor in all preparations of this description of which it forms a part, there are one or two points which need careful attention. The gelatine, dissolved in a little water, must be added at a certain temperature, for if it be too hot it causes the cream to lose some of its lightness; if too cold, it sets in small hard lumps instead of being intimately mixed with the whole. And again, after the gelatine is added, the cream preparation must be stirred until on the point of setting, more particularly so when it contains fruit, almonds, pistachios etc., which would otherwise sink to the bottom of the mould. On the other hand, if the mixture is allowed to become too cold, it does not take the shape of the mould. It available, the mould should stand in an ice cave or on ice until the cream sets firmly. When creams have to set without this aid, they should be made the day before, and kept in a cold place until required.
To Unmould Jellies and Creams.—It is much better to dip the mould once into hot water than 3 or 4 times into lukewarm water; and as the whole is immersed it is necessary that the top of the jelly or cream should be afterwards dried with a clean cloth. One sharp "up and