than Denmark, this country supplying more butter to the rest of the world than any other. Equally good is the butter imported from Holland, the annual import of which into England is enormous. Butter of good quality is also imported from Canada, America, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Argentine. The Board of Trade's latest return shows that Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and Holland, each send about one and a quarter million pounds, (sterling) worth of butter into the United Kingdom annually. France sends butter worth about £2,000,000, and Denmark supplies us with nearly £10,000,000 worth.
To make Butter.—There are 3 methods pursued in the manufacture of butter. In one, the cream is separated from the milk, and in that state it is converted into butter by churning. In the second method, the whole milk is subjected to the same process, but it is extremely wasteful, for the sour butter milk is of no use except as food for pigs, whereas new skimmed milk has a marketable value, or, enriched with linseed meal or other oily substances, may be given to calves instead of whole milk. In Devon and Cornwall, and the West of England generally, the milk, as soon as it comes from the cow, is heated over a stove or hot water pipes, which makes the cream rise and thicken into the well known "clotted cream," which is afterwards very readily and quickly turned into butter. The first method is generally said to give the richest butter, and the last the largest quantity but opinions differ.
Churning.—A great many different churns are sold, but the secrets of good butter making are simple and applicable to all kinds.
The first is scrupulous cleanliness. Everything must be scalded daily with boiling water, rinsed with cold water, and used wet. Every utensil must be set out in the open air every day.
The second is the right temperature for the cream. A thermometer is absolutely necessary, and must register 55° to 60° Fahr. when churning begins. The desired temperature is usually attained by adding a little warm water or icy cold water when it is necessary to modify the temperature. Butter, under these conditions, should come in about 15 minutes. It is then washed quite free from butter milk, usually with cold water, before the butter is removed from the churn. Salt is generally added in the proportion of from ¾ to 1 oz. for each 3 lb. of butter. It should be dried and finely powdered.
To sweeten Rancid Butter.—This is done in several ways: by beating it in lime water (water in which 1 lb. would be washed should have about 15 drops of chloride added); by scalding with boiling water, or by washing in new milk. The last named is the safest and best method, and those who live some distance from the place from whence they procure their supplies of butter will find these instructions to perfectly sweeten rancid butter of service to them. The butter must be thoroughly washed and kneaded first in new milk, where it will lose the acid which has turned it, then in fresh spring water.