and scrub out every utensil she has used ; brush out the churn, clean out the cream jars, which will probably require the use of a little common soda to purify; wipe all dry, and place them in a position where the sun can reach them for a short time, to sweeten them.
Devonshire Cream.—In Devonshire, celebrated for its dairy system, the milk is always scalded. The milk-pans, which are of tin, and contain from 10 to 12 quarts, after standing 10 or 12 hours, are placed on a hot plate of iron, over a stove, until the cream has formed on the surface, which is indicated by the air-bubbles rising through the milk, and producing blisters on the surface-coating of cream. This indicates its approach to the boiling-point; and the vessel is now removed to cool. When quite cool, the cream is skimmed off with the slice. It is now the clouted cream for which Devonshire is so famous and is placed in the churn, and churned until the butter comes, which it generally does in a much shorter time than by the other process. The butter so made contains more caseine than butter made in the usual way, but does not keep so long.
Cost of Dairy.—It is calculated that a good cow costs, from May 1 to October i, when well but economically kept, £5 16s. 6d.; and from October 1 to April 30, £10 2s. 6d. During that time she should produce 227 Ibs. of butter, besides the skimmed milk. Of course, if new milk and cream are required, that will diminish the quantity of butter.
Besides churning and keeping her dairy in order, the dairymaid has charge of the whole produce, handing it over to the. cook, butler, or housemaid as required ; and she will do well to keep an exact account both of what she receives, and how and when she disposes of it.
The Laundry-maid is charged with the duty of washing and getting-up the family linen a situation of great importance where the washing is all done at home; but in large towns, where there is little convenience for bleaching and drying, it is chiefly done by professional laundresses and companies, who apply mechanical and chemical processes to the purpose. These processes, however, are supposed to injure the fabric of the linen; and in many families the fine linen, cottons, and muslins are washed and got-up at home, even where the bulk of the washing is given out. In country and suburban houses,where greater conveniences exist, washing at home is more common—in country places universal.
A good laundry establishment for a large household consists of a washing-house, an ironing and drying-room, and sometimes a drying-closet heated by furnaces. The washing-house will probably be attached to the kitchen; but it is better that it should be completely detached from it, and of one story, with a funnel or shaft to carry off the steam. It will be of a size proportioned to the extent of the washing to be done. A range of tubs, either round or oblong, opposite to, and sloping towards, the light, narrower at the bottom than the top, for convenience in