be now washed out with soap-and-water as hot as the hands can bear, first in one water, and rinsed out in a second (soda will be needed in the water used), and afterwards boiled for two hours in water in which a little soda is dissolved. When taken out, they should be rinsed in cold water, and laid out or hung up to dry.
Silks and Stuffs.—Silk handkerchiefs require to be washed alone. When they contain snuff, they should be soaked by themselves in lukewarm water for two or three hours; they should be rinsed out and put to soak with the others in cold water for an hour or two; then washed in lukewarm water, being soaped as they are washed. If this does not remove all stains, they should be washed a second time in similar water, and when finished, rinsed in soft water in which a handful of common salt has been dissolved. In washing stuff or woollen dresses, the band at the waist and the lining at the bottom should be removed, and wherever it is gathered into folds; and, in furniture, the hems and gatherings. A black silk dress, if very dirty, must be washed; but, if only soiled, soaking for four-and-twenty hours will do; if old and rusty, a pint of common spirits should be mixed with each gallon of water, which is an improvement under any circumstances. The operations should be concluded by rinsing the tubs, cleaning the coppers, scrubbing the floors of the washing-house, and restoring everything to order and cleanliness.
Washing Machines.—The use of machines for washing, wringing and mangling has now become general. They can be had suitable for the smallest as well as the largest family, and materially save labour, and in a short time, their cost. According to the machines used so do the instructions vary, each maker having some specialty. It may, however, be roughly stated that stains should be rubbed out of clothes before they are put into the machines, and that care should be taken in wringing the articles that the buttons be not dragged off. An ordinary family washing machine when opened out occupies a space of about from 4 ft. to 5 ft. square (not more room than tubs would take), but when not in use it can be greatly reduced. A wringing machine is sometimes attached to a washing one, and is occasionaly a thing apart, which can be fixed to an ordinary tub. It may be said that it is of the greatest use if there is anything like heavy washing to be done, as with very little trouble the clothes are thoroughly wrung, and all the water being squeezed out, time in drying is thus saved. Wringing machines also serve for mangling ones.
Mangling.—Linen, cotton, and other fabrics, after being washed and dried, are made smooth and glossy by mangling and by ironing. The mangling process, which is simply passing them between rollers subjected to a very considerable pressure, produced by weight, is confined to sheets, towels, table linen, and similar articles which are without folds or plaits. Ironing is necessary to smooth body-linen, and made-up articles of delicate texture or gathered into folds.