Foreign Bodies.—In the Nose.—These are generally peas, beads, sweets, cherry-stones, etc.
Treatment.—If old enough, get the child to forcibly blow down the obstructed nostril after taking a deep breath, while the finger is pressed tightly against the free nostril. Failing this, grasp the nostril behind the seat of obstruction, and introduce a small flat article, such as the handle of a salt spoon beyond it, and endeavour to scoop it out.
In the Ear. Treatment.—If an insect has found its way into the ear, pour in olive oil, when the intruder will generally float to the top. If a pea, bead, or cherry-stone, use the head of a hairpin as a snare and, with the utmost gentleness, endeavour to insinuate it beyond the object it is intended to remove.
'In the Eye. Treatment.— If the offending substance is not imbedded in the globe of the eye it can generally be easily removed, either with or without everting the lid (turning the lid outwards), by using the corner of a soft pocket handkerchief, or a camel-hair pencil moistened with water or olive-oil, or by drawing the top lid down over the lower. Blowing the nose sharply will often effect removal. If the substance is imbedded in the globe of the eye, a camel's hair pencil dipped in water or oil may be passed over it, and an effort made to dislodge it. Should this fail, and medical assistance is not at hand, a blunt-pointed instrument may be carefully passed across the surface. The eye must not be rubbed, or permanent injury may be done. Should quick-lime get into the eye, wash it out as thoroughly as possible with water, then bathe with a lotion consisting of a teaspoonful of vinegar to a wineglassful of water, or drop a little castor-oil into the eye. In case of injury by acid, bathe with milk or 1 part of lime-water to 3 of water.
Fractures.—Treatment.—When a fracture has taken place the object is to bring the ends of the bone that has been broken as nearly as possible to the position they were in previous to the accident. In order to do this, the part nearest the body must be steadied by some one, while that furthest removed is gently stretched out, the sound limb being uncovered and observed as guide. Having got the limb into good position, splints must be applied to fix it in the position in which it has been placed, and the limb must then be kept still. In dealing with fractures immediately after they have happened, great care must be taken in moving the patients in order to prevent a simple fracture being converted into a compound one: that is, to prevent the fractured bone protruding through the skin. For this reason it is always best, in giving first aid, to apply temporary splints outside the clothes till the sufferer can be placed in more favourable conditions for treatment.
Haemorrhage, or Bleeding.—From a Wound.—The blood from an artery is distinguished from that of a vein by being brighter in colour and by flowing in a saltatory or jumping way.
Treatment.—If from a vein make a compress by folding up a piece