Hindus. It forms one of the signs (Taurus) of the Zodiac. Oxen and sheep have from the earliest ages been used for religious sacrifices. They also constituted the wealth of the earlier races. The original stock of existing breeds is unknown. The Chillingham cattle are a type of the older wild ox and are supposed to be the descendants of the Urus, or "mountain bull," inhabiting the forest districts of Britain at the time of the Roman invasion. The Aurochs, or Lithuanian bison, is also an example of the wild variety. The chief breeds in Britain are the Ayrshire, Alderney, Kyre, and Durham short-horn, with crosses between these varieties, bred for food or the dairy. A large quantity of beef is now imported from America and Canada. Beef constitutes the principal article of animal food, and is highly nutritious, but less digestible than mutton. It's constituents are: In 100 parts: Water, 72.0; proteids, 21.0; fats, 6.0; salts, 1.0.
79.—PARTRIDGE SOUP. (Fr.—Potage de Perdrix.)
Ingredients.—2 quarts of second stock, 1 cold roast partridge, or the remains of two or three, ¼ of a lb. of calf's or chicken's liver, 2 ozs. of lean bacon or ham, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 bouquet-garni (parsley, basil, marjoram, thyme, bay-leaf), 1 glass of port or sherry, salt and pepper.
Method.—Cut a teaspoonful of small dice from the breasts of the birds and put them aside. Cut the remainder of the birds into small pieces, the liver into thin slices, and the bacon into dice. Fry all these together in 1 oz. of butter until brown, then add the stock, bouquet-garni, seasoning, and simmer gently for 1½ to 2 hours, keeping the compound well skimmed; strain, pound the meat in a mortar and rub it through a sieve, or, when pounding is inconvenient, rub as much as possible through a wire sieve. Melt the remaining oz. of butter, stir in the flour, and cook until brown. Pour in the stock, stir until it boils, add the purée of meat, wine, seasoning if necessary, the dice of partridge, simmer for a few minutes, and serve.
Time.—2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 9d. without stock and partridge. Seasonable from September 1 to February. Sufficient for 6 persons.
The Partridge (Fr. perdrix).—The common partridge is in Britain the most abundant of the game birds, and belongs to the same family as the grouse. Its general colour is ash-grey, varied by brown and black. The male partridge is about 12 inches in length; the female is somewhat smaller. It feeds principally on grain and insects. The eggs are olive-brown, and the young brood is known as a "covey." A characteristic of the partridges is their habit of associating together and frequenting their native locality. The French partridge, or red-legged variety, a native of southern Europe, is larger than the English variety, and is numerous in the eastern counties of England. It is stronger on the wing than the English bird, and does not fly in coveys. The eye is pencilled in front and behind by a white line, and its eggs are yellowish white marked with brown. In the United States several species of quail are called partridges.
80.—QUEEN SOUP. (Fr.—Potage à la Reine.)
Ingredients.—1 chicken, 3 quarts of white stock, 4 ozs. of bacon, 1 carrot, 1 onion, 1 bunch of parsley, thyme, bay-leaf, 3 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of almonds, 4 ozs. of breadcrumbs, chicken quenelles, seasoning, ½ a pint of milk.
Method.—Slice the bacon and put in a stewpan together with the vegetables, herbs, etc. Place the chicken, previously trussed as for boiling, on top, season with pepper and salt, pour in 1 quart of stock, cover with a lid, and let it reduce slowly; add the remainder of the stock, boil slowly, skim, and continue to boil until tender. Remove the