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216
HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

cold, work in the remainder of the butter, pass through a fine sieve, and add a little pepper and salt and spinach-greening, if necessary.

Time.—30 minutes. Average Cost, 8d.

Spinach (Fr. Épinards) is cultivated for its young leaves, which are prepared for the table by boiling or frying. Two principal varieties of spinach are cultivated, prickly spinach with triangular and arrow-shaped leaves; and smooth spinach, the leaves of which are round and blunt. Flanders spinach is also grown for the market. It is a wholesome vegetable, and one of its constituents being iron, spinach is beneficial to persons who suffer from anæmia.

Gravies.

163.—BEEF GRAVY FOR POULTRY, GAME, Etc.

Ingredients.—1 pint of cold water, ½ a lb. of lean beef, 1 small onion, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the beef into small pieces, put it with the onion and the water into a stewpan, or earthenware stewjar, and cook slowly for 3 or 4 hours. Strain, season, and use as required.

Time.—3 to 4 hours. Average Cost, 6d. Quantity, about ¾ pint.

164.—BROWN GRAVY. (Fr.Jus brun.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of water, 1 lb. of neck or shin of beef, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of sweet dripping, ½ oz. of flour, 1 medium-sized onion, 1 small slice of lean bacon, or a few trimmings of lean ham or bacon, salt and pepper, 1 clove, if liked.

Method.—Cut the meat and bacon into small pieces, slice the onion. Melt the dripping in a stewpan, put in the meat, bacon, and onion, and fry till brown. Add the water, salt and pepper, and clove, cook slowly for 3 or 4 hours, and strain. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, and cook for 5 minutes. Add the gravy, stir until it boils, skim, simmer for 10 minutes, and use as required.

Time.—3½ to 4½ hours. Average Cost, about 10d. Quantity, 1 pint.

Cloves (Fr. Clou de girofle).—An agreeable pungent aromatic spice, obtained from the dried flower buds of the Caryophyllus aromaticus, a handsome branching tree with purplish flowers, allied to the myrtle. The name is derived from the Latin, clavus, and French, clou, "a nail," to which the clove is supposed to bear a resemblance. The clove is a native of the Molucca Islands, but is successfully cultivated in Jamaica, Sumatra, Mauritius, Cayenne, Malacca, Trinidad, and other places. The Amboyna, or royal clove, is said to be the best, and is obtained from the island of that name, colonized by the Dutch. The clove contains about 20 per cent. of volatile oil, which abounds in every part of the plant, occasioning its peculiar pungent flavour; the rest is composed of woody fibre, water, gum, and resin. Cloves are used medicinally, but are chiefly employed for culinary purposes.

165.—BROWN GRAVY FOR ROAST RABBIT. (Economical.)

Ingredients.—1 pint of water, 1 oz. of beef dripping, 1 oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, the liver of the rabbit, 1 medium-sized onion, ½ a carrot, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.