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of a clean cloth, hold tightly wrapped up under cold water, and squeeze well. Put them in a small stewpan with the oil, stir over the fire for a few minutes, to blend but not to colour. Add the wine, the mushrooms (finely chopped), herbs, and the stock, let it reduce well, and add the Espagnole. Boil for 10 minutes, take out the herbs, free the sauce from the oil, and keep hot in the bain-marie until required.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, for this quantity, 1s. 1d. to 1s. 3d. Sufficient for two small dishes.

The Shallot, or Eschalot (Fr. éschalote) is a species of onion, Allium Ascalonicum, with compound bulbs, which separate into "cloves" like garlic. It is the mildest flavoured of all the onions. The shallot is used to flavour soups and made-dishes, and in the raw state makes an excellent pickle. The name is said to be derived from Ascalon, in the vicinity of which it was found growing wild by the Crusaders, who brought it back with them to England.

254.—KIDNEY SAUCE. (Fr.Sauce aux Rognons.)

Ingredients.—¼ of a lb. of ox kidney, ½ a pint of stock or water, ½ an oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove every particle of fat, and cut the kidney into small pieces. Melt the butter, fry the kidney for a few minutes, then sprinkle in the flour. Stir and cook until the flour is slightly browned, then add the stock and season to taste. Bring to the boil, simmer gently for 20 minutes, then strain and serve.

Time.—35 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. without the stock.

255.—MADEIRA SAUCE. (Fr.Sauce Madère.)

Ingredients.—½ a pint of Espagnole sauce, ¼ of a pint of good gravy, 1 oz. of meat glaze, 1 glass of Madeira or sherry, salt and pepper.

Method.—Simmer the sauce, gravy and wine until well reduced. Season to taste, put in the meat glaze, stir until it is dissolved, then strain the sauce, and use as required.

Time.—About ½ hour. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. for this quantity. Sufficient for ⅔ of a pint of sauce.

256.—MINT SAUCE. (Fr.Sauce à la Menthe.) (To Serve with Roast Lamb.)

Ingredients.—4 dessertspoonfuls of chopped mint, 2 dessertspoonfuls of sugar, ¼ of a pint of vinegar.

Method.—The mint should be young and fresh-gathered. Wash it free from grit, pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very fine, put them into a tureen, add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till the former is dissolved. This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 hours before it is required for the table, as the vinegar then becomes impregnated with the flavour of the mint. Good white wine vinegar is