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when making quenelle mixtures, which must have a certain consistency, and yet retain the lightness which is one of their chief points of excellence, it is advisable to test the mixture by poaching a small quantity of it in boiling water. When too soft, another yolk of egg should be added, if eggs have been already used, or a few crumbs may be added to mixtures of which they already form a part.

The excellence of many simple forcemeats depends largely on flavourings and seasoning. In making them, it is a common error to use too little salt and pepper, and too few flavourings; it is much better to use a small quantity of several kinds than to allow one flavour to predominate. A comparatively large quantity of nutmeg may be used in forcemeat without its presence being detected; it is believed that its strength is in some manner used in developing the flavour of the substances with which it is mixed.

The liquid in which quenelles are poached must always be quite boiling, in order that the surface may immediately harden, and so help them to retain their shape.


Ingredients.—2 lb. of chestnuts, ½ a pint of stock or water, 1 oz. of butter, a good pinch of sugar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut off the tops of the chestnuts, and bake or roast them for 20 minutes. Remove both the outer and inner skins, put the chestnuts into a stewpan, add the stock (no more than will barely cover them), and simmer until they become tender and dry. Rub through a fine sieve, add the butter, salt and pepper, and use as required.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, from 7d. to 8d. without the stock.


Ingredients.—½ a lb. of uncooked fish (two whitings), ¼ of a pint of milk or fish stock, No. 5, 2 ozs. of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, pepper and salt.

Method.—Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the milk or stock, and cook until the panada forms a compact mass round the bowl of the spoon. Pound the fish and the panada well together, add the eggs one by one, season well, and pass the ingredients through a wire sieve.

A lighter mixture may be obtained when required by pounding 3 yolks with the fish and mixing the 3 whites (stiffly whipped) after passing the mixture through the seive.

Time.—About 35 minutes. Average Cost, about 1s. for this quantity.