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370
HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT

has acquired this colour, the pan should be placed where the fish will cook slowly, so as to prevent it becoming darker. When thoroughly done, drain and leave it to get cold, and serve it upon a fish paper, garnished with parsley.

Time.—About ½ hour to cook the fish. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable from April to August.

The Salmon (Fr. saumon) is the type of the family Salmonidæ, which forms the first sub-order, the Malacopteri of the third order of fishes, the Teleostei, or fish possessing a bony skeleton, and having the skull composed of distinct bones. The ventral fins are abdominal, the second dorsal fin is soft and without rays, and the swim-bladder is developed. The head of the salmon is smooth; its teeth are placed in the upper and lower jaws, palate, and roof of the mouth; the edges of the tongue are notched. The colour of the salmon is steel-blue on the head and back, and silver-white on its lower parts. The salmon lives in both salt and fresh-water, and is found distributed over the north of Europe and Asia, and in the great rivers of North America. It spawns in the late autumn or the beginning of winter, and ascends the rivers, often to a great distance, for that purpose. The spawn is deposited in a shallow groove in the sand or gravel, and covered over by the action of the tail and fins of the fish. Salmon after spawning are known as kelts. The young are hatched about March, and pass through three stages before attaining full maturity. When first hatched the young are called parr, and remain under that designation some fifteen months to two years, living in the shallows of their native stream. The second stage is that of the smolt, or salmon-fry, when the fins become darker and the body more silvery, and the young fish in shoals migrate to the sea. On returning from the sea, where it has rapidly increased in growth, to the rivers, it is known as the grilse, or salmon-peel, and weighs on the average from 4 lb. to 6 lb. The grilse on its return to the rivers spawns for the first time. Again going back to the sea the grilse gradually increases in size, and becomes the salmon. The salmon is the finest of food fishes, characterized by its orange-coloured flesh, and is called by Isaac Walton the "King of fresh-water fish." It is esteemed of so much importance, that special Acts of Parliament have been passed to regulate the salmon fishery and preserve the fish. A close-time for salmon fishing in England and Wales, including also the Esk in Dumfries, is fixed for nets from September 1 to February 1, and for rods from November 2 to February 1. In Scotland it is for nets from August 27 to February 10, for rods, from November 1 to February 10, with certain local exceptions. In Ireland there are many variations of the close-time, but the netting close-time must not be less than 168 days. It is illegal to sell fresh salmon between September 3 and February 1, except salmon imported from foreign countries. There are also special penalties for capturing or selling "unclean" salmon, i.e., salmon recently spawned or full of spawn. The salmon is caught by the rod or by specially constructed nets. The principal salmon fisheries in England and Scotland are those of the Tweed, North Esk, Dee, Tay, Severn, Avon and Spey. Salmon is very abundant in the rivers of North America, and large quantities of tinned salmon are exported thence to Great Britain.

601.—SALMON WITH GENEVESE SAUCE. (Fr.Saumon Sauce Génévoise.)

Ingredients.—2 slices of salmon, ½ a pint of good stock, ¼ of a pint of Madeira or other white wine, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 dessertspoonful each of chopped-onion and parsley, 1 carrot sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), a blade of mace, the juice of a lemon, a teaspoonful of anchovy-essence, cayenne, salt and pepper.

Method.—Melt 1 oz. of butter in a stewpan and fry the onion until slightly browned, add the stock, wine, parsley, carrot, bouquet-garni, mace, anchovy-essence and seasoning, and boil gently for 30 minutes, then strain, and return to the stewpan. Bring the sauce to boiling point, put in the slices of fish, and let them simmer gently about 20 minutes, or until the fish separates easily from the bone. Meanwhile melt the remaining oz. of butter in another stewpan, add to it the flour, stir and cook over the fire for 4 or 5 minutes. When the fish is done, remove it carefully to a hot dish, pour the liquor on to the butter and flour, stir until smooth, then simmer for 5 or 6 minutes. Add the lemon-juice to the sauce, season to taste, strain over the fish, and serve.