used it should be heated, and its bars well rubbed with paper, and afterwards with a little fat or suet. Whatever is being grilled must be repeatedly turned, by means of steak-tongs, or, failing these, a fork put into the fat of the meat, for if the lean be pierced the juices will escape through the holes thus made. This cooking process is suited only to small portions of meat, or kidneys, bones, fish, mushrooms, tomatoes, etc.
SUMMARY OF GENERAL RULES
(1) One general rule is that meat should never be washed, but there are at least three exceptions to the rule. viz.:—
(a) When using diluted vinegar or charcoal to remove the taint of putrefaction.
(b) When meat has been over-salted, and it is necessary to extract the excess of salt.
(c) Hearts and liver before they are cut into slices: the surface of both being protected by membranes, immersion in cold water does not deprive them of their nutritive juice.
(2) In roasting and baking an intense heat must be applied to all for 10 or 15 minutes, and the temperature afterwards considerably reduced.
(3) In boiling, fresh meat should be put into boiling water, boiled rapidly for 10 minutes, and then cold liquid added to reduce the temperature. Immersion in boiling water hardens the fibres of salt meat, therefore it should be put into warm water, or when too salt, it may be placed in cold water, which will extract some of the salt, and also a considerable quantity of the juices of the meat.
(4) In stewing, the process must be long, slow and continuous, the escape of steam being prevented by a close-fitting lid, and, if necessary, by intervening layers of greased paper.
(5) In frying, a blue smoke must arise from the fat before it is hot enough to fry even things which require a comparatively low temperature. Cold things to be fired must be added to the fat gradually, to avoid reducing the temperature too suddenly. The fat must always be re-heated to a proper temperature before putting in a second set of things to be fried.