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simmer them slowly for at least 2 hours, strain, season, and use as gravy. Cut the meat into thin small slices, cook the vegetables and cut them into very thin slices. Spread a thin layer of mashed potato on the bottom of a pie-dish, on the top place a few slices of meat, add a little carrot and onion, sprinkle on some of the herbs, and season well with salt and pepper. Repeat until the dish is full, pour in as much gravy as the dish will hold, cover with the mashed potato, and bake in a moderate oven until the surface is well browned. The potato should be smoothed and shaped by means of a knife to resemble as nearly as possible a paste crust; and the appearance may be further improved by brushing over the top with beaten egg, or a little milk. Serve the remainder of the gravy separately.

Time.—To bake, about ¾ of an hour. Average Cost, 4d., exclusive of the meat. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Beef (Fr. boeuf).—The quality of beef is determined by various conditions, such as the age, the sex the breed, and the food upon which the animal has been raised. Bull beef, as a general rule, is dry and tough, and of an inferior flavour. That of the ox is highly nourishing and digestible. The flesh of the cow is also nutritious, but is less palatable than that of the ox; that of the heifer is greatly esteemed. The flesh of the small sized breeds is much sweeter than that of larger kinds. It is in greatest perfection when the animal is about 4 years old.

819.—BEEF CAKE. (Fr.Gâteau de Bœuf.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of cold roast beef, 4 ozs. of breadcrumbs, 1 small onion chopped finely, 2 ozs. of cooked ham or bacon, 1 teaspoonful chopped parsley, pepper and salt, 1 egg, 1 gill of stock, about 2 ozs. of bread raspings, 1 oz. of butter.

Method.—Grease a plain mould or shallow cake tin, put in the raspings, and turn the mould round until quite covered with the raspings, Melt the butter, fry the onion until slightly brown, mince the beef and bacon finely, and then mix all the ingredients together, using more stock if the mixture is very dry. Then turn into the prepared mould, press carefully into shape, cover with a greased paper, and bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes. Turn out carefully, and pour a little brown sauce round.

Time.—To bake, about 45 minutes. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the meat. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

820.—BEEF, COLLARED. (Fr.Bœuf épicé.)

Ingredients.—7 lb. of thin end of the flank of beef, 2 ozs. of coarse sugar, 6 ozs. of salt, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1 large handful of parsley minced, 1 desertspoonful of minced sage, a bunch of savoury herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of pounded allspice; salt and pepper to taste.

Method.—Choose fine tender beef, but not too fat; lay it in a dish, rub in the sugar, salt and saltpetre, and let it remain in the pickle for a week or 10 days, turning and rubbing it every day. Then bone it. remove all the gristle and the coarse skin of the inside part, and sprinkle