Page:Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management.djvu/686

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2 ozs. of flour, 1 egg, breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, pepper and salt, frying-fat.

Method.—Saw the rib bones across, remove the short ends, fold the flap under, and bind securely. Place the meat in a stewpan containing as much boiling stock (or boiling water and usual flavouring vegetables) as will barely cover it, simmer gently for 1 hour, then drain well. Beat the egg, add the parsley, herbs, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and coat the meat thickly with the mixture. Cover lightly with breadcrumbs, and bake in a moderately hot oven until well-browned, meanwhile basting frequently with hot fat. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook slowly until well-browned, and add 1 pint of boiling stock from the larger stewpan. Stir until boiling, season to taste, simmer gently until required, and serve separately.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 6d., in addition to the meat, which will cost from 10d. to 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Wollen Manufactures.—The woollen industry was the earliest, and, at one period, the most important of English manufactures, until the great development of cotton manufactures at the early part of the nineteenth century. During the Middle Ages English wool was esteemed the best in Europe. Flemish weavers came to England at the time of the Norman Conquest, and later on, in the reign of Edward III, the settlement of a number of Flemish clothworkers gave the first effective impulse to the woollen industry. Many legislative enactments were passed from time to time for the encouragement and protection of this important manufacture, and it was not until 1824 that a law prohibiting the export of wool was repealed. The distinction between wool and hair is rather arbitrary than natural, wool being in reality a modified form of hair, and similar to it in its chemical composition. It is characterized by a greater fineness in its fibre, by its softness and pliability, and also by being more scaly than common hair, which gives it its special felting property. The sheep, the llama, the Angora goat, and the goat of Tibet, are animals from which most of the wool used in manufactures is obtained, the last named furnishing the fine wool from which Cashmire shawls are made. Of European wools, the finest is yielded by the Merino sheep, the Spanish and Saxon breeds taking the preference. The Merino sheep, now naturalized in Australia, from whence large quantities of wool are exported, supplies an excellent fleece; but all varieties of sheep-wool, reared whether in Europe or Australia, are less soft to the touch than that grown in India, or than the wool of the llama of the Andes. The best of our British wools are inferior in fineness of texture to any of the above-mentioned varieties, but for the ordinary purposes of the manufacturer they are unrivalled.

1054.—NECK OF MUTTON, TO ROAST. (Fr.Carré de Mouton Rôti.)

Ingredients.—Best end of the neck of mutton, fat for basting, salt and pepper.

Method.—Saw the rib bones across, remove the short ends, fold the flap under, and fasten securely. Roast in front of a clear fire, or, if more convenient, bake in a moderately hot oven, in either case basting frequently with hot fat (see "Roast Mutton" and "Notes on Roasting," p. 428). Serve with good gravy and, if liked, onion sauce.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.


Ingredients.—Thin slices off a well-hung leg of mutton, 2 ozs. of butter,