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io s. xu. AUG. 14, 1909.] NOTES AND QUERIES.


121


LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST Ik, 1W9.



CONTENTS.-No. 291.

NOTES: Scottish Market Customs, 121 Fiennes of Broughton, 123 'D.N.B. Epitome,' 124 Dirigible Bal- loons Anticipated, 125 Early Attempts at Aviation- Johnsons at Walsill, Staffs, 126 King's 'Classical and Foreign Quotations 'Keith's Mayfair Marriages, 127.

(QUERIES : London Taverns in the Seventeenth Century "Harka" Flying Turk V. De Vos Kendall=Lyon, 127 Authors Wanted Parodies of Kipling and the Poet Laureate Nicholas Hobart of Lindsey Hews or Huse Family Crayle Crayle, 1721-80 Gotham and the Gothamites The Pryor's Bank, Fulham Folk Song- Bible: "Knave of Jesus Christ," 128 Gravestones at Jordans Spanish Christmas Carol Meyer and Hoppner Families Bacon and Italy Epworth Parsonage Ghost- Miss Nash at Orchies Jacob Cole Robert Slade Spare Family " Skyle " " Moon-dog," Weather Sign Macaulay on Literature ' The Yahoo': 'The Naked Gospel'" No Flowers," 130.

REPLIES : " Bourne " in Place - Names, 130 " The Saracen's Head," Snow Hill, 131 Bridg water Borough T. L. Peacock Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 132' The Oera Linda Book 'Portrait by Lawrence Charles II. 's Mock Marriage Happisburgh " Volksbiicher " " Sam- iritis" Lynch Law, 133 Dr. Johnson's Uncle Hanged Episcopal Scarf or Tippet Derivation of Edinburgh Sir Cuthbert Slade C. Pigott's Jockey Club,' 135 -Essex fatal to Women Dorchester : Birrell's Engraving, 136 Girdlestone Healen Penny Harvest Supper Songs- Ordeal by Touch " Coherer "Old Names of Apples, 137 General Picton Dr. Jay Eliza Fenning's Execu- tion Capt. R. J. Gordon Papaw : Maturing Meat, 138 Royal Independent Hanoverian Lodge De Quincey Allusions Hocktide at Hexton Paul Braddon, 139.

NOTES ON BOOKS .-Little Guides to Monmouthshire and Essex Reviews and Magazines.

Notices to Correspondents.


SCOTTISH MARKET CUSTOMS.

AMONG the earliest references to regula- tions regarding trading customs is one to be found in the ' Lawys of the Burghis of Scotland, mayk and ordanyt be the Kyng David.' It is to the effect that any stall- holder in a market connected with a burgh must pay at the rate of one halfpenny per day ; and if the merchant had a covered stall he was to pay for custom a halfpenny on the market day, while if he had no cover his booth was mulcted in a farthing. There was a good deal of native cuteness shown in the regulations, for by another rule a penalty was imposed upon any man or woman who had the hardihood to go beyond the limits of the burgh to buy goods before they came within the precincts thereof. There was to be no stealing a march on one's neighbour. Good govern- ment prescribed the dues to be imposed, and sales must follow upon the basis thus calculated. Even in the case of fish, there were no picturesque fisherwomen to be seen offering the commodity from door to


door ; all had to be disposed of in the market And so stringent were the rules that any one entering the town at night With a catch of fish had to remain until the market opened next morning.

It is a common saying that there is no Act of Parliament through which a coach and four cannot be driven if there is a desire to escape its provisions. Some of the sailors were in the habit of taking more provisions in their ships than were necessary for the voyage, and on these daring adven- turers an embargo was laid. Anything taken with them beyond the necessities of the case was to be declared " escheit," and " applyit and inbrocht to our Souerane Ladyis use." But an exception was declared in the persons of the canny folk of Irvine, Glasgow, Dumbarton, and some others. To them was allowed the privilege of taking " bakin breid, browin aill, and aquauite " to the Western Isles, for the purpose of barter among the inhabitants thereof. If a concession were given with one hand, those west-coast men were to remember that a quo was required for the quid. No one was to be allowed to buy from strangers coming to the burghs in ships on the west seas, but only from men at the free ports. They seemed to know the outs and ins of human life, and could " take a survey " of daily necessities in those far-off days.

By an Act of James IV. it was decreed thatr fairs and markets were not to be held on holy days nor within kirks or "kirkyairds." A special restriction was put upon the sale of malt ; this produce was not allowed to be sold in any other place than in open market, and only after the hour of 9 o'clock. The provost and bailies of the burgh were under strict orders to see that these provisions were carried out, and also that no more was taken for the making of one chalder of malt than one boll of barley.

About the year 1540 it was found that the meal and " utheris wittalis " market of the town of Edinburgh, which was held in the " hie gaitt " of the town, was the means of drawing together " ane multitude of vyle, unhonest, and miserable creatures," who had no good motives in being there. With the view of removing this nuisance it was decreed that some other more con- venient place be found for the market, which would be creditable for all concerned. In these modern days there are exalted personages who hold office as inspectors of markets. But in the times to which we are referring nobody of lower rank than a