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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. SEPT. 4 , im

at an angle formed by the junction of two roads. It is thus inscribed : This pedestal is erected to perpetuate the memory of an obstinate, bloody, and decisive battle

fought near this spot, in the Civil Wars between the ambitious


of York and Lancaster, on the 2nd day of Feb- ruary, 1460,

between the forces of Edward Mortimer, Earl oJ March (afterwards Edward the Fourth), on the

side of York, and those of Henry the Sixth on the side oJ

Lancaster. The King's troops were commanded by Jasper,

Earl of Pembroke ; Edward commanded his own hi

person and was victorious : the slaughter was great on both

sides, four thousand being left dead on the field, and

many Welsh persons of the first distinction were taken


Among them was Owen Tudor (great-grandfatherto Henry the Eighth, and a descendant of the

illustrious Cadwallader), who was afterwards beheaded at

Hereford. This was the decisive battle which fixed Edward


Fourth on the throne of England, who was pro- claimed

King in London on the fifth of March following. Erected by Subscription

in the year 1799. Brentford, Middlesex (12 Nov., 1642). On 12 May last a granite monument was inaugurated beside the Thames at Brentford Ferry to commemorate four historical events, including the Civil War battle fought on the above date. It was raised by public subscription, and unveiled by the Duke of Northumberland. Mr. Montagu Sharpe, D.L., who initiated the idea of the memorial, dealt with the historic events commemorated in an able and interesting speech at the unveiling, which was reported verbatim in The County of Middlesex Independent of 15 May, 1909. The following inscriptions are on the memorial :

B.C. 54.

Here at this ancient fortified ford

the British tribesmen under Cassiv-

ellaunus bravely opposed Julius Caesar

on his march to Verulamium.

To commemorate this historic event

this stone was erected

A.D. 1909,

by the Brentford Council, Evan Phillips, J.P., Chairman, John Dorey, Vice-Chairman. William Bradley Harry Newens,

James Clements, Wm. Noy,

William J. Gomm. C. E. Saunders,

GK Lamb, J. T. Taylor, J.P., C.C.

J. B. Milburn, H. Walter, M.D.

J. W. Croxford, Stephen Woodbridge,

Surveyor. Clerk..

The identity of the place of Caesar's crossing has recently been established by the dis- covery of the remains of lines of oak pali- sades, extending both along this bank and in the bed of the river, and brought to public notice by Mr. Montagu Sharpe r Chairman of Quarter Sessions and County Council of Middlesex.

Here in A.D. 780

Offa, King of Mercia, with his Queen,

the Bishops and Principal Officers, held

a Council of the Church.

A.D. 1016.

Here, Edmund (Ironside), King of

England, drove Cnut and his defeated

Danes across the Thames.

A.D. 1642.

Close by was fought the Battle of Brent- ford, between the forces of .King Charles I. and the Parliament.

Humbledon, near Wooler, Northumber- land (14 Sept., 1402). A rude unlettered monolith standing north of Wooler is said to commemorate the battle of Humbledon or Homildon Hill, in which Douglas was- defeated by Henry, Lord Percy, on the above date. The stone is, however, much older.

Hedgeley Moor, near Wooler, Northumber- land (1463). An octagonal pillar, known as Percy's Cross, a few miles south of Wooler, indicates the site of this battle, fought between the forces of Sir Ralph Percy and Lord Montagu about three weeks before the battle of Hexham (15 May, 1463). It was erected to the memory of Percy, who lost his life in the engagement. On the sides of the pillar are carved emblems of the Percy family, conspicuous among which are lucies or pikes, signifying the Lucy descent.

I have to thank several kind correspond- ents for valuable help in adding to my list.

learn from more than one source that the memorial over King Richard's Well on Bosworth Field is still in situ, as also the inscription written by Dr. Parr. A corre- spondent has kindly visited the spot and copied the inscription for me. He says the spring is covered by the memorial, which is pyramidical. It is about 10 ft. high, and onstructed of rough undressed granite. The base is 10 ft. square, and the well itself about 4 ft. by 2 ft., and very shallow. The inscription over the water is :

Aqua ex hoc puteo hausta

sitim sedavit

Klcardus tertius rex Angliae

Cum Henrico comite de Richmondia

Acerrime atque infensissime praelians

Et vita pariter ac sceptro

Ante noctem cariturus XI Kal. Sept. A.D. MCCCCLXXXV.