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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 3, 1900.

rounders, or stool-ball. But there could be no merit or reason in the case of the game, of sticking to one's tut. The phrase must refer to work being done with perseverance and tenacity, in the case of the refractory paupers, the ringleader having laid himself out to stick to the role he had assumed. The word seems to be the same with " tot " or " tote," i.e., the total, the whole of the job or work undertaken for the day or any specified time. I have myself heard the phrase " He has done his little tot." Grose (1790) says that " To do work by the tote " is " to undertake it by the great." As it is pointed out in the ' English Dialect Diction- ary,' in Derbyshire, Isle of Wight, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, and Cornwall " tut "= piece- work, and a " tut- man " is one who works by the piece. " Tut " and " tit " is in Devonshire the whole of anything, complete in every detail ('Horse Subsecivae,' cited in the ' E.D.D.,'

8.V. ' Tut '). J. HOLDEN MACMlCHAEL.

THE WHITE HEN (10 S. xi. 448). The saying " You 're like the hen that never lays astray " I remember as a lad living in East Anglia, but I do not think that any special plumage was mentioned. But perhaps J. B. is correct, as a white hen would not have much chance of laying eggs and hatching them in a hedgerow without being detected. I do not find it in the books of proverbial sayings I possess, but it is worthy of being enshrined therein. W. B. GERISH.

Bishop's Stortford.

For Juvenal's " filius albse gallinse " see Lewis and Short's 'Latin Dictionary,' 1900 under albus, p. 80, col. 2. It has travelled a little into our literature. In Ben Jonson's New Inn' 1629, I. i., where the discourse

Lv? " n Jl brm e ln g U P <> f youth, the host says all are not sons of the white hen" (ed. Cornwall, 1838, p. 409). Peter Heylyn m his Answer to Henry Burton' 1637


oneo h u *

one of the sonnes, no question of the

young white henne " (pref.). w. C. B

S a


business of the patentee, nor does it furnish any details of the construction of the machine, but it contains a special clause- extending the privilege to the " plantations- of Virginia."

In* 1650 Ed. Williams published in London a tract entitled " Virginia's Dis- covery of Silk Worms .... Together with the making of the saw-mill, very useful in. Virginia, for cutting of Timber and clapboards to build withall." Williams gives a descrip- tion of the saw-mill, together with a woodcut ; and although he does not mention the name of the inventor, it is hardly likely that there- could have been two machines of this kind in Virginia at that early date. I feel, therefore, justified in assuming that the saw-mill described by Williams in 1650 wa& really that for which Hugh Bullock obtained a patent in 1629. Williams's tract fur- nisher the basis of an article on the intro- duction of the saw-mill into America in the ' Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Patents for 1850,' Part I. p. 387.

R. B. P.

HANGMEN WHO HAVE BEEN HANGED (10 S. xi. 468). I can add an instance in 1538 :

"This yere, the first day of September, beinge- Sundaye, at Clerkenwell, where the MTestlinge i& iept, after the wrestlinge was done, there was hanged on a payre of gallowes, newe made, in the same place, the hangman of London, and two more,

or robbing a youth in Bartlemewe fayre. Which

sayd hangman had done execution in London since- the Holy Mayde of Kent was hanged, and was a. conninge butcher in quartering of men." 'Wriothes- .ey's Chronicle,' Camden Soc., i. 85.

We learn from Walford's ' History of Fairs,' p. 184, that the hangman's name was Cart- well, but Hall's ' Chronicle ' shows the- name as Cratwell. The Holy Maid of Kent was hanged on Monday, 20 April, 1534.


MARGARET POLE, COUNTESS OF SALISBURY (10 S. xi. 429, 477). She was beatified by Pope Leo XIII. by decree dated 29 Dec 1886. In 1887 the Catholic Truth Society published a biography of her by Mr. G. Am- brose Lee. The latest and completest bio- graphy is that by the late Father Keogh and by Dom Bede Camm, O.S.B., in ' Lives of the English Martyrs,' vol. i. (Burns & Gates 1904), pp. 502-40.


' The Last of the Plantagenets ' is the sub- ject of the commencing section of a book published in 1878 entitled 'The Victi

the Penal Laws.

Victims of JOHN T. PAGE.