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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. SEPT. -25, 1000.

hook (due to a strong singular), with th( -e-s in sterre-s, plural of sterre, a star Strong substantives have no -e- in a com pound ; only weak ones can exhibit it Hence the M.E. hokedai cannot possibly represent an A.-S. form hoc-dceg, but must go back to an A.-S. form hocan-dceg, from a weak sb. hoca, masc., or hoce, fern, or neuter It is precisely because no A.-S. hoca or hoce is recorded that the etymology of M.E hokedai remains unknown. It is clear that Fosbroke knew nothing about Middle English grammar. WALTER W. SKEAT.

In Chambers's * Book of Days,' i. 499, the article on the subject of Hocktide concludes thus :

"It may be added that it appears, from the entries in the churchwardens' registers of various parishes, that in the fifteenth and sixteenth cen turies Hock-tide was called in London Hob-tide."


RUSHLIGHTS (10 S. x. 27, 76, 93, 135 154, 275, 353). In The Illustrated Times of 2 Feb., 1861, p. 74, is a short article headed ' Primitive Method of Lighting stil in use in the Fens of Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire,' with an engraving entitled ' Primitive Candle and Candlestick in use in the Lincolnshire Fens.'

At the end of the article is the following : "The Engraving shows a very primitive kind ot candle which, even at the present day, is in use in the cottages in the marshy districts. The wick is formed of the rushes gathered in the neighbouring bogs, and, when dry, dipped two or three times into hot tallow, and then laid aside for use. The candlestick consists of a rough stick set upright in a circular stand. Horizontally is a twig forked at one end for the purpose of holding the candle. It might be worth while for the ingenious contributors to Notes and Queries to inquire if this homely invention may have given origin to the word

  • candlestick.' "

The print shows a rushlight stick, very tall. The rushlight passes through the fork of the smaller stick, which slanting upwards at its forked end, crosses the main stick. The rushlight is so long that it has a coil at the lower end like a taper.


LONDON TAVERNS IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY (10 S. xii. 127, 190). I think MR. HEMS is wrong in saying that " The Cock " " stood upon a portion of the site of the new Law Courts in the Strand." I have often dined at " The Cock." It was east of Bell Yard, and it stood upon a portion of the site of the Bank of England, Law Courts Branch. HARRY B. POLAND.

Inner Temple.

MR. HEMS is not quite correct as to the site of " The Cock." The Law Courts were completed, and in use, some time before " The Cock " was pulled down. The whole of the site of the Courts is on the west side of Bell Yard ; the tavern stood in that part of Fleet Street which lies between Bell Yard and Chancery Lane, and the site is now covered by the Law Courts Branch of the Bank of England. WM. DOUGLAS.

125, Helix Road, Brixton Hill.

APPLES : THEIR OLO NAMES (10 S. viii. 429 ; ix. 297, 314, 495 ; x. 15, 215 ; xii. 137). I have pleasure in transcribing from my report on MSS. at Skokloster, printed in the Forty-Third Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, the list of English apples sent to Marshal Wrangel in 1662, as MR. UDAL requests.

No. 1. Harvi aple. Heel stoor sommarfrucht.

2. Rer Pomorum. Sommarfrucht stoor och snart mogen.

3. John Appel. Godh winterfrucht och finnez uthi baggez tunnorne som pa sundet sants ahro, ahra riindaistige grone och med rodhe strymer.

4. Gelliflower. Winterfrucht och skoo'n. 6. Queen Royal. Sommarfrucht.

6. Holland Pepin. Winterfrucht uthi baggez tunnorne.

7. Von Gustian. Sommer aple.

8. Marigold aple. (Sommarfrucht.

9. Margett aple. Forst mogen frucht.

10. Doctor Harvi's aple. Sommarfrucht stoor.

11. Russetin aple. Skoon winterfrucht, gra och riind, och finnez, uthi baggez tunnorne.

12. Rousset Pepin. Winterfrucht och finnez i tunnorne nagot gra och gaalachtig.

13. Golden Pepin. Giuil med storre flakier ahn dhe andre pepinz finnez uthi tunnorne.

14. Enghsch Warden. Winterfrucht.

15. Poiremains. Finnez uthi tunnorne nagot aflang som citrona ahr skoon winterfrucht och i stoor aestim.

16. Een knippa ympor af Moder Pepins som ahr giprdt swass pa enda, skoon och godh winterfrucht huaraf finnez aplen uthi lille tunnan.

17. Een stoor knippa Kentisch Pepinz. Rar winterfruoht omarkt.


SACRED PLACE-NAMES IN FOREIGN LANDS (10 S. xi. 467; xii. 176). MR. RHODES'S list at the second reference contains the Scottish Joppa and Alexandria, both given merely as ' in Scotland." The former is on the Firth of Forth, beside Portobello in Mid-Lothian ; while the latter is in the Vale of Leven, co. Dumbarton, and famous for its Turkey-red dyeing industry.

It may be added that a favoured northern

orner of Cameron parish, Fifeshire, is

named Paradise. In spring it is glorious

with wild-flowers, at midsummer it is a

grateful retreat for fugitive calves ; and