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32


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. JULY 10, 1909.


receive the deputation of Saxon nobles which there awaited him to offer him the crown and swear allegiance to his government. Edgar Atheling, the heir to the Saxon throne, the Earls Edwin and Morcar, Aldred, Archbishop of York, and the Saxon Bishops Wulfstan of Worcester and Walter of Hereford, were at the head of this important deputation ; and when fair words and promises had passed on both sides, the Conqueror advanced to Westminster, where Aldred performed the ceremony of coronation."

It seems quite probable that after this many of the waverers came in to pay homage to the new king at Barking.

W. B. GERISH. Bishop's Stortford.

The ' Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ' says that after the defeat and death of Harold, William retired to Hastings to see whether the nation would submit to him, but, finding his hopes disappointed, marched northwards with his army, harrying the country as he went, till he came to Berk- hampstead :

"And there came to meet him Archbishop Ealdred, and Eadgar child, and Earl Eadwine, and Earl Morkere, and all the best men of London, and then from necessity submitted when the greatest

harm had been done Then on Midwinter's day

Archbishop Ealdred hallowed him King at West- minster." Thorpe's Translation.

I can find no mention of Barking in the ' Chronicle.' C. E. LOMAX.

Louth, co. Lincoln.

OLIVER CROMWELL'S HEAD (10 S. xi. 349, 389, 453). It is Cromwell's bones that are said to be preserved at Newburgh Priory. In my report on Sir G. WombwelPs early charters for the Historical Manuscripts Commission (vol. ii. of ' Reports on Various Collections,' 1903, Preface, p. vi), 1 wrote:

" In a brick sarcophagus in a loft at the top of the house, carefully secured against violation, the bones of the Protector are supposed to rest, surreptitiously rescued by the filial piety of his daughter."

The sarcophagus is enclosed within an iron railing, in consequence of small attempts having been at some time made by inquisi- tive sight-seers to pierce holes in its walls. W. D. MACRAY.

The body of Oliver Cromwell was exhumed with those of Ireton and Bradshaw (by Act of Parliament 8 Dec., 1660), as appears from the following :

May the 4tb. day 1661, rec. then in full of the worshipfull Sargeant Norfolke fiveteen shillings for taking up the corpes of Cromell and Ireton & Brasaw rec. by mee. JOHN LEWIS.

The three coffins were taken to Tyburn, and on 30 Jan., 1661 (the anniversary of


Charles's death), the bodies were hanged at the three angles of gallows until sunset, they were then beheaded, the trunks thrown in a pit under the gallows (?), and the heads set upon poles at Westminster Hall.

The decapitation was probably performed hastily, which would account for the nose being broken and for the head having been separated from the body by two distinct irregular blows, the first somewhat high in the neck. There is an ear missing, which, according to tradition, was taken by one of the Russells of Fordham.

Samuel Russell, being in pecuniary diffi- culties, applied for assistance to Mr. Cox, who, partly (as he afterwards confessed) with a view to the acquisition of the head, advanced upwards of 100Z. during the seven years ending 30 April. 1787, when, very reluctantly, Mr. Russell by a legal deed transferred the head to Mr. Cox, who con- cealed it even from his own family, to prevent incessant applications to see it.

In 1775 Dr. Southgate, Librarian to the British Museum, was asked his opinion of its identity, and after comparing it care- fully with medals, coins, &c., delivered his opinion thus : " Gentlemen, you may be assured that this is the head of Oliver Cromwell."

The famous medallist Mr. Kirk writes :

The head shewn to me for Oliver Cromwell's I verily believe to be his real head ; as I have carefully examined it with a coin, and think the outline of the face exactly corresponds with it, so far as remains. The nostril, which is still to be seen, inclines downwards as it does in the coin, the cheek bone seems to be as it is engraved, and the color of the hair is the same as one well copied from an original painting by Cooper, in his time. JOHN KIRK.

Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 1775.

There is an illustration of the head in a pamphlet entitled ' Narrative | relating to | the real embalmed head | of | Oliver Crom- well | now exhibiting | in Mead Court in Old Broad Street | 1799.' This is doubtless the history referred to in Carlyle's letter (10 S. xi. 453.) F. M. R. HOLWORTHY.

THE STORM SHIP (10 S. xi. 488). Your correspondent in far Japan has, no doubt, heard of the tale of the "Flying Dutchman," numerous versions of which are known in Germany. An explanation of the many " spectre ships " actually seen by various travellers is given in Sir David Brewster's ' Letters on Natural Magic ' (London, 1833).

L. L K.

[ST. SWITHIN also mentions the " Flying Dutch- man."]