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NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xn. NOV. 27, 1009.

If Lochinvar vaulted from the steps of a Border peel, he could no doubt throw his leg over the neck of a horse standing close to them, without coming in contact with the girl behind the saddle by swaying his body backwards to preserve his balance. The feat would be easy so easy that the girl, too, might have mounted without being swung to the croup.

But would the entrance to the tower built for defence be the one used on festive occasions by a family of importance like the Netherby Graemes ? Space for many people and for dancing was needed. Lochinvar

enter'd the Netherby Hall

Among bridesmen, and kinsmen, arid brothers, and all.

The bride -maidens whispered together while he danced with the bride till the two " reached the hall door, and the charger stood near." Does this " hall door " mean the door of a military tower ?

With regard to the idea that he mounted from a horse-block, why did not the bride's kinsmen interfere while he was ascending it ? That he sprang up from the ground with the needful swiftness and dexterity seems impossible. The woman already on the horse would prevent his making the necessary movements.

But if he gained the saddle from the steps leading down from a Border peel, it is a little surprising that Scott did not complete his description of the scene by a few words showing from what vantage he " took off."

o. o. o.

CAINSFOBD, GLOUCESTERSHIRE (10 S. xii. 367). It is quite possible Cainsford may mean Kempsford. The only name in Glou- cestershire at all similar is Cainscross, and this is a village constituted in 1894 from the parishes of Stonehouse, Randwick, and Stroud. There are several entries relating to the Jenner family of Kempsford in Mr. Crisp's Register of Kempsford, 1653-1700, the earliest being 1654 (birth of Robert Jenner). The names of Edith and William do not occur. ROLAND AUSTIN.

Gloucester Public Library.

MILDEW IN BOOKS (10 S. xii. 387). If mildew on the binding is what the querist refers to, I think that formalin will be found useful. It may be applied with a brush, without dilution, and (so far as my ex- perience goes) without any injury to the leather. It seems not only to kill the existing mildew, but also to prevent, at least for a year or two, the growth of new mildew, although the neighbouring volumes

which have not been so treated may bo mildewed. The formalin I used is that made by the Chemische Fabrik of Berlin, but can be obtained from any chemist.

J. F. ROTTON. Godalming.

THE YEW IN POETRY (10 S. xii. 388). Nos. 1 and 2 are quoted from Sir James Mackintosh's ' Letter to Francis Horner * by Dr. John Lowe in ' Yew Trees of Great Britain and Ireland,' 1897, p. 169. No. 3 I cannot trace in Lowe, or anywhere else.

If your correspondent is interested in poetical references to the tree, pp. 15479 of the above-mentioned book are devoted to this purpose. S. L. PETTY.

[See also ante, p. 421.]

" DISH OF TEA " : " SAUCER " (10 S. xii, 287, 377). The evidence of the REV. JOHN PICKFORD goes to show that tea was formerly drunk, even among the higher circles of society, from the dish or saucer. What was the reason for the custom being dis- continued, and whence does the discon- tinuance date ? Was it considered an ungainly or awkward proceeding ? or why was it that it became " bad form," and is sometimes spoken of to-day as savouring of " kitchen manners " ? I remember seeing a gentleman-farmer, some few years ago, come in from hunting and drink his tea from the saucer.

When was the word " saucer " (originally a vessel for holding sauce) first applied to the receptacle used to support the cup containing tea or coffee ?


Surely the phrase " dish of tea " arose from the fact that the earliest teacups were made without handles, and were very wide and shallow. I have seen such cups in collections of old china. G. W. E. R.

It cannot be conceded that the expression " dish of tea " originated in the practice of drinking tea from the saucer, because in Shakespeare's time, and later, a " dish of milk," a "dish of aqua vitae," a "dish of coffee," and a " dish of tea " were common locutions for a quantity more or less in- definite ; and saucers, which were specially used for sauce (hence their name), had not come into general use, nor had teacups. Pepys, 25 Sept., 1666, makes early mention of a " cup of tea," a China drink of which he had never drunk before. But it is evident that the tea-bowl, with or without stand, was in use prior to the tea-cup and