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76


NOTES AND QUERIES. [io s. xii. JULY 24, igu9.


"1823. P. Nicholson, ' Pract. Build.,' 581, 'Boasting; in stone-cutting, paring the stone irregularly with a broad chisel and mallet; in carving, the rough cutting of the outline, before the minuter parts.' "

MB. RATCLIFFE'S description agrees rather with nidging. Under ' Nidge ' the ' N.E.D.' has :

" 1842. Gwilt, ' Archit.' 519, ' In Aberdeen, where

the stone is very hard they pick the stone until

the surface has nearly acquired the requisite form. This sort of work is called nidged-work, and the operation nidging.' Ibid., 1008, 'Nidged Ashlar, a species of ashlar used in Aberdeen. It is brought to the square by means of a cavil or hammer with a sharp point.' 1850 in Ogilvie."

The term " boasting " is seldom used by masons now, and is perhaps rarely heard in the quarries. This must also apply to " nidging." The dressing is probaoly and commonly known as " quarrying stone."

TOM JONES.

To " bost " is an expression that implies to cut away rough, superfluous stone. A mason will " bost " a block into some sort of shape, prior to a sculptor taking it in hand to carve ; but for this purpose chisels and a mallet would be used.

Upon the Isle of Portland, amongst the Ham Hill " badgers " and in a few other places, the " kevel " may be found still in use, but it is not an acknowledged tool forming part of an ordinary stonemason's " kit." John Smeaton in his superbly illustrated ' Narrative of the Building of the Eddystone Lighthouse' (1791) records his visit to the quarries at Portland in May, 1756, and, noticing the use of this peculiar axe, describes it (p. 62) as follows :

"The quarrymen have a tool called a kevel, which is at one end a hammer, and at the other an axe, whose edge is so short and narrow that it ap- proaches toward the shape of a pick, and with it, by a succession of sturdy blows, they soon reduce a rough piece of stone, by the eye to a square block."

In a foot-note is added :

"The kevel is a tool curiously formed for the purpose ; the face of the hammer end not being flat, but hollowed according to the portion of the sur- face of a cylinder. This gives a keen edge to two of its opposite sides, that are parallel to the handle, and by this means, biting keenly upon the stone, brings off a spawl or large shiver. The edge of the pick end is about half an inch in breadth."

HARRY HEMS. Fair Park, Exeter.

CAP!. RUTHERFURD AT TRAFALGAR (10 S.

xi. 10, 73, 454). At the second reference I stated that I was looking for particulars of this gallant officer ; 1 am still doing so


I shall be very glad of some particulars concerning the presentation of the sword of lonour by the City of London, of which [ find no mention in * London's Roll of Honour,' published in 1884. This book covers a period extending from the close of the reign of George II. to 1884. At a ourt of Common Council held on 26 Nov., 1805, when it was resolved " that the thanks of this Court be given to Vice- Admiral Lord Collingwood and Rear- Admiral the Earl of Northesk " ; several " captains, officers, seamen, and royal marines " were included. Was Capt. Rutherfurd one of the officers in this group ? It would seem as if it might be so. Perhaps MR. BORRAJO can afford enlightenment.

W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. Westminster.

"DAVELLY" RAIN (10 S. xi. 509). Davely is duly noted in the ' Eng. Dial. Diet.' as a Cheshire variant of the Northern deavely, of which the usual sense is " lonely 5> or " dull." It is the same word as deaf- like. The Norse equivalent is daufligr, lit. " deaf -like," but explained by Vigfusson as " lonely, dull," and even '* dismal." As applied to rain, it may very well mean " dismal " or " depressing " ; i.e., a steady drizzle, that gives no hope of its leaving off soon. WALTER W. SKEAT.

[MR. HOLDEN MAcMiCHAEL also thanked for reply.]

SHYLOCK TRACT (10 S. ix. 269 ; xi. 456). There is an earlier reference to Caleb Shilock. In the British Museum there is

" Newes from Rome of two mightie armies

the first of the great Sophy, the other of an Hebrew

people from the mountaines of Caspij. [Signed*

Signior Valesco. J Also certaine prophecies of a Jew

called Caleb Shilock Translated out of Italian

by W. A 7 . Printed by I. R. for H. Gosson." [London, 1606.] 4to. C. 32 d.

Gosson, the publisher of this tract, was also the publisher of the first edition of ' Pericles."

WILLIAM E. A. AXON. Manchester.

" SEYNT-PRO-SEYNT " : A WINE (10 S. viii. 48). By chance, I find my query answered in ' The Romans of Partenay * (E.E.T.S.), of c. 1500-20, at 1. 980 :

Wine of seint pur sain, and of ris hys brood. The editor, Prof. Skeat, gives the French text as

Vins de sainct poursain, vin de Rys ; and explains the former as = St. Pourcain-sur- Allier, in the department Allier. The odd form at the heading dates c. 1400.

H. P. L.