Page:Notes and Queries - Series 11 - Volume 11.djvu/191

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ii s. XL MAR. o, IBIS.] NOTES AND QUERIES.


181


LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 6, 1915.


CONTENTS. No. 271.

UOTES :-Cromwell's Ironsides, 181 English Consuls in Aleppo, 182 Bibliography of Irish Counties and Towns, 183 Shakespeare Allusions, 184 Parsee Investiture "Ground-hog case" "A hair drawn through milk," 185 Furniture at Easton Man, lilt Forerunner of the Lon- don Scottish Evolution of Cricket, 186 German Soldiers' Amulets Captain Lieutenant : Privileges of Officers in the Foot-Guards" Spruce girl," 187.

QUERIES : Philip and Mary Swinburne Robert Inglis's Edition of Shakespeare Duck's Storm : Goose's Storm "Fingers" of the Clock Norbury : Moore: Davis: Ward Cockburn Anstruther, Fife : Scott of Balcomie Confucius in ' Tristram Shandy 'Percy Fitzgerald on Johnson and Hannah More W. Roberts, Esq., 188 Dr. Benamor Hayman Drawings Quotation Wanted Meaning of " Culebath " : Flabellum Counties of South Carolina : Skottowe General Goff's Regiment- Wright of Essex French Recruiting before Napoleon "Poisson de Jonas," 189 John Trusler Julius Caesar and Old Ford Da Costa: Brydges Williams Emerson Reference Sir John Jefferson's Descendants Daniel Ecclaston Will Watch Freemasons of the Church, 190 Dry den and Swift, 191.

REPLIES : The Red Cross Flag Antonio Vieira, 191 Guilielmo Davidsone Latin Grace Eighteenth-Century Physician on Predestination, 192 Hammersmith Heraldic: Foreign Arms Pol egate Locks on Rivers and Canals Henley Family, 194" Pecca fortiter 'Pictures and Puritans Llewelyn ap Rees ap Grono, 195 Col. the Hon. Cosmo Gordon Savery Family Renton Nicholson, 196 Luke Robinson Our National Anthem, 197 House of Normandy Gilbert Family "All's fair in love and war " Hiinas of ' Widsith 'John Trevisa Regent Circus, 198 Clerical Directories Barring-out, 199.

27OTKS ON BOOKS: -'The Handbook of Folk-Lore' 'Fortnightly Review' 'Nineteenth Century.'


CROMWELL'S IRONSIDES. THE ORIGIN AND MEANING OF THE TERM.

'To those modern writers who have been unaware of its real origin and meaning, " Ironsides " has been a picturesque term upon which they have fastened as implying something complimentary to Cromwell and his men. As a matter of fact, it was nothing of the kind, and was merely a prosaic nick- name occasioned by Cromwell arming his horsemen and himself in iron armour.

As is usual in most matters concerning 'Cromwell, people have been misled by S. R. Gardiner. Gardiner has two refer- ences to the subject, both in his history of the Great Rebellion, which he styles "the '** Great Civil War." The first is contained an vol. ii. p. 1 (ed. 1893), and runs as follows :

" Rupert, with soldierlike instinct, gave to him [Cromwell, after Marston. Moor in 1644] the name of Ironside, by which his Puritan followers soon learned to distinguish him."


These assertions are backed by the following quotation in a foot-note (I have completed the quotation by adding the words in italics) :

" Monday we had intelligence that Lieutenant Gen. Cromwell, alias Ironside (for that title was given him by Prince Rupert after his defeate near York ) [i.e., at Marston Moor], icas about Redding (sic) with 2,500 horse, marching towards Sir William Waller." MercuriusCivicus, 16-26 Sept., 1644.

The second reference is to be found in vol. iv. p. 179 :

" It was at Pontefract that Cromwell's men were first called by the nickname of Ironsides, a, term which had hitherto been appropriated to himself. It was not, however, an epithet which came into general use for some time to come-"

By way of proof of these assertions Gardiner gives the following foot-note :

"The Resolution of the King's Majesties sub- jects" [in the County of Cornwall, &c., 2 August, 1648].

Gardiner does not, however, support this reference by any quotation, so I supply the omission. My extract is from a letter from Pontefract, set out in the tract in question :

" Collonel Bonovant having received intelligence of the advancing of Lieut. Gen. Cromwell's horse into these parts, and that they intended to cross over the river of Gosse, 8 miles from Pontefract, to joyn with M. G. Lambert, he drew out a party consisting of 200 horse and marched to the said place, where he found some in a very disorderly posture ; and, after a short dispute, he returned to the Castle again, and brought along with him about 15 prisoners, who at their coming into the Castle, a great shout was given by the soldiers and others, saying ' that Cromwell and his Iron sides were now taken,' and the bells of the town were commanded to ring for joy."

Both quotations render it perfectly clear that the nickname was a Royalist one, given in the first instance by Rupert. I can only describe the assertions that the nickname was first given to Cromwell by Rupert's " soldierlike instinct," that Crom- well's soldiers (sic, horse) were first called by the name at Pontefract, and that the term afterwards "came into general use," as pure inventions. The second quotation (as is too frequently the case when Gar- diner refrains from setting out his authority) lends 110 countenance whatever to these assertions.

It will be noticed that the nickname applies to Cromwell and to his hdrse only, and dates from Marston Moor (11 July, 1644). The first nickname of the kind seems to have been used in the previous year, and also to have referred to the fact that the Parlia- mentary horse were clad in iron armour, for