ii s. xi. MAR. 6, i9i5.] NOTES AND QUERIES.
Merton. He became M.A. 13 Dec., 1683 M.B. 23 June, 1685; and M.D. 2 July, 1687 He lived for a time at Northampton, but removed to London in 1694. Thoma? Hearne (' Diaries/ vol. i. p. 305) says :
" At his leaving y 3 University I think he began tf> practise Physick at Northampton, w ch place he was oblig'd to leave upon Ace 4 of some Criminal Commerce w th some woman. He lives now somewhere in the Diocesse of Norwich and has writ some Heterodox Books about the Nature of y 6 Soul."
Coward practised in London at 93 and 94, Lombard Street, and afterwards went to live at Ipswich, where, it is believed, he died in 1725. In 1722 he wrote from Ipswich to Sir Hans Sloane, offering to submit an epitaph upon the Duke of Maryborough, the Duchess having offered 500Z. for a suitable one.
For Coward's life see Munk, ' Roll of the College of Physicians,' vol. i. p. 512 ; Hearne's ' Diaries,' vol. i. ; House of Commons' Jour- nals, 1704 ; Foster's ' Alumni ' ; J. A. Farrer's ' Books condemned to be Burnt,' 1892 ; Wood's ' Athense ' ; ' D.N.B.' (article by Leslie Stephen) ; Alger's ' Doctrine of a Future Life,' New York, 1871, passim.
Coward wrote one or two medical essays which are forgotten. The following is a list of such of his books as deal with the subject of the query, including also some books by other authors bearing upon the controversy.
Coward, William, M.D. The Grand Essay ; or' A Vindication of Reason, and Religion, against Impostures of Philosophy proving....!. That the Existence of any Immaterial Substance is. ... Impossible to be conceived. 2. That all Matter has originally created in it, a Principle of . . . .Self Motion. 3. That Matter and Motion must be the Foundation of Thought in Men and Brutes. To which is added, a Brief Answer to Mr. Brough- ton's Psychologia, &c. By.W. C., M.D. C.M. L.C. London, 1704, 8vo, pp. 248.
Coward, William, M.D. Second Thoughts con- cerning Human Soul, demonstrating the Notion of Human Soul, as believ'd to be a Spiritual and Immortal Substance, united to Human Body, to be plain Heathenish Invention, and not conso- nant to the Principles of Philosophy, Reason, or Religion London, 1702, 8vo, pp. 458.
Coward, William, M.D. Farther Thoughts concerning Human Soul, in Defence of Second Thoughts ; wherein the Weak Efforts of the Reverend Mr. Turner, and other less Significant Writers are occasionally answer'd .... London, 1703, 8vo, pp. 155.
Phylopsyches (Alethius), pseudon. Serious
Thoughts on Second Thoughts Written in
Opposition to a late Heretical, Erroneous, and Damnable Book, set forth by Dr. William Coward. . . . .London, n.d., 8vo, pp. 142.
[Turner, John.] A Brief Vindication of the Separate Existence and Immortality of the Soul from a late Author's Second Thoughts Lon- don, 1702, 4to, pp. 64.
Turner, John. A Farther Vindication of the Soul's Separate Existence, and Immortality ; in
Answer to Dr. C.- 's Farther Thoughts
London, 1703, 4to.
[Hole, Matthew.] An Antidote against Infi- delity, In Answer to a Book, entitled, Second
Thoughts concerning Human Soul With a Full
and Clear Proof of the Soul's Immortality. By a Presbyter of the Church of England. London,. 1702, 8vo.
Broughton, John. Psychologia ; or, An Ac- count of the Nature of the Rational Soul. In Two Parts. The First, being an Essay towards establishing the receiv'd Doctrine, of an Immaterial and consequently Immortal Substance, united to- Human Body The Second, a Vindication of
that ... .Doctrine, against a late Book, call'd
Second Thoughts London, 1703, 8vo, pp. 418.
Nicholls, William, D.D. A Conference with a Theist. Being a Proof of the Immortality of the Soul. Wherein is contained an Answer to the Objections made against that Christian Doctrine in a Book intituled, Second Thoughts concerning: Humane Soul, &c. Part V. London, 1703, Svo,. pp. 248.
[Reach, Benjamin ] The French Impostour Detected. Or, Zach. House tryed by the W^ord of God and cast. Wherein, also, the Errors of Dr. Coward (in his late Book called Second Thoughts) are laid open. Shewing what Cause he hath to think again. And the Immortality of the Soul fully evinced. In ye Form of a Tryal. 3rd ed. London, 1703, 12mo.
[Layton, Henry-] Observations upon a Trea- tise intituled, A Vindication of the Separate Existence of the Soul, from a late Author's Second Thoughts, by Mr. John Turner (Lon- don, 1702?), 4to, pp. 55.
[Layton, Henry.] Observations upon a Trea- tise intituled Vindicise Mentis (London, 1703 ),.
4to, pp. 88.
[Gregory, F.] Impartial Thoughts upon the Nature of the Human Soul, and some Passages concerning it in the Writings of Mr. Hobbes and Mr. Collier, occasioned by a Book entitled Second! Thoughts. By a Divine of the Church of England. London, 1704, 4to.
Smith, Lawrence, LL.D. The Evidence of Things not Seen ; or the Immortality of the Human Soul, proved from Scripture and Reason,, in two Discourses. Wherein are contained some Remarks on Two Books (viz. Coward's ' Second,'
and ' Farther Thoughts ' ) together with an
Examination of the Opinion of a Middle Place of Residence, &c. 3rd ed. London, 1706, Svo.
Le Wright, . The Soul the Body at the
Last-Day, proved from Holy Writ : refuting the Common Received Opinion, that we shall be judged in our Corruptible Bodies. W T herein Dr. Coward's and Mr. Asgill's Absurd Opinions are in. some measure weighed. With an Observation on Mr. Rehearser. London, 1707, Svo, pp. 31.
Hampton, Benj. The Existence of Human: Soul after Death : proved from Scripture,.
Reason and Philosophy London, 1711, Svo,
Kahler, Joh. Philipp. Commentatio de Im- mortalitate Animarum Infantum ex Natura sua deducta, Cowardo et Dodwello opposita. Rin- elii, 1748, 4to, pp. 39.
Fleming, Caleb. A Survey of the Search after Souls, by Dr. Coward, Dr. S. Clarke, Mr. Baxter,. Dr. Sykes, Dr. Law, Mr. Peckard, and others.