NOTES AND QUERIES, [iis.xi. APRIL 2*. i9i&
" Many of the roads of the district seem to have had an equally primitive origin. These had been at first mere trackways across the waste; which, as population, and consequently traffic, increased, and enclosure became general, were developed into hollow ways and founderous lanes of the worst possible description." P. 273.
" The roads were thus incessantly traversed by gangs of pack-hprses, carts, and waggons, all heavily laden with clay, flints, coals, pot-ware, and miscellaneous goods of every description. The general rate of conveyance was 9s. per ton for ten miles." P. 275.
I have in my possession an old pack-horse bell, and, judging from its size, should imagine that each horse or mule would have a number of them attached to the harness, or the sound of their ringing would not be audible, although I believe the bells varied in size. CHARLES DRTJRY.
In the northern parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire pack-horses (galloways) were used as a means of conveying merchandise such as coal, wool, malt, and corn until about 1840. A " gang of galloways " consisted of twelve or fourteen horses. They always walked in single file, the first horse wearing a collar of bells, and being known as the " bell -horse.' 1 The horses were allowed to feed by the roadside, and when the meal was over they were muzzled ; if the bell- horse, while grazing, happened to get behind the others, it knew as soon as it was muzzled that the real business of the day had commenced, and would push its way to the front as leader. The bells that it wore were usually seven in number, and were fixed to a leather collar, and hung loosely across the shoulders, ringing with every movement of the horse. Donkey s were often used as carriers during sheepshearing time. ARCHIBALD SPARKE, F.R.S.L.
[A full article on this subject by MB. HUMPHREYS will appear in an early May issue.]
T/om Kdirira KaKicrra (11 S. x i. 209, 255). Constantin. Porphyrogenit., ' De The- matibus.' i.: rpia Kainra KOLK terra, KaTTTraoWia, Kprjrrj, KOL KtAi/aa ('Corpus Script. Byzant.,' vol. iii. of Const. Porphyr., p. 21).
J. H. G,
RETROSPECTIVE HERALDRY (11 S. xi. 28, 77, 155, 236). As I have already made two communications on this subject, I would not again trespass on your columns were it not that LEO C. has directly appealed to nv3. May I take the last instance he gives (ante, p. 237) of the sixteenth-century grant " to William Rande. . . .and to the descend- ants of his grandfather Nicholas Rande,"
&c.? Would not William Rande's father by this grant also become armigerous ? If so, is not this operation aptly described as retrospective ? Surely William Rande's cousins can only become armigerous through the grant to the descendants of William's grandfather. May not this also be con- sidered retrospective ? It was the case put by G. J. (ante, p. 28).
LEO C. prefers to use these ancestors only for purposes of " establishing identity " ; whilst MR. JEFFERY and I thought that they gave a retrospective operation to the grant. We may be wrong, but if it be only a question of terms, let us, as LEO C. saj/s, agree to differ. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A.
COURTESY TITLES (11 S. xi. 250). 2. Viscounts are usually created with one title,, or raised by the substitution of Viscount for Baron with the original name. There is r therefore, no second title for the eldest son to bear, and this in practice is why he does not bear it.
4. The elder son takes all, and is superior to his brothers. The sisters inherit as co- heiresses, and are all equal to their eldest brother and to one another. It was this potentiality of inheritance that secured them the same precedence as their brother out- wardly symbolized by the title " Lady."
B. C. S.
Apropos of these I should like to inquire from some correspondent if such titles in use in old Celtic families as, for example.. McCallum Mor, The Master of Napier r O'Connor Don, The O'Morchoe, and others, are included in the category of courtesy titles. ZANONI.
PRAYERS FOR ANIMALS (11 S. xi. 265). - There was an exhaustive and interesting correspondence on this subject in The Guardian, and also in The Church Times, about November and December, 1914.
J. DE BERNIERE SMITH.
4, Gloucester Gate, Regent's Park, N.W.
" WANGLE" (11 S. xi. 65, 115, 135, 178 r 216, 258). In reference to the recent dis- cussion of the word " wangle " in ' N. & Q., r I see that in John Bull of 27 March the follow- ing sentence occurs :
" We regret to see them reduced to the level of vulgar weight ivnnglcrs, and as far as the bread business is concerned, we are quite prepared to- believe that it was all the fault of a tiresome auto- matic machine which is evidently new to its job.'"
A. E. MARTEN.
50, Windsor Terrace, South Shields.