NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. xi JUNE 5, 1915.
(9) Letters especially letters fallen from heaven. A collection was made of over a hundred protecting letters carried by German soldiers a few years ago.
(10) Magic spells (such as Claverhouse's, ineffectual against the fatal silver bullet).
(11) A meteorite fragment.
(12) The musk-rat.
(13) Oil of sesame.
(14) Objects connected with a pregnant woman. Still among Lancashire gips es. Body-bands of pregnant women were in great demand during the Russo-Japanese War.
(15) Sanctity (such as that of the Bab).
(16) Spirituality (such as the local negro enthusiast's claim: " Ah'se a sperrit ! ").
(17) The umbilical cord closely allied to (4) and (14) above.
(18) L T nction (such as Medea's).
(19) Water at birth.
(20) Wool, from sheep brought as sacrifice. I may also mention Berthold's ' Die
Uhverwundbarkeit in Sage und Aberglauben der Griechen ' ; new in 1912, and praised.
I would suggest that in the instance of the use of phylacteries as amulets, cited by MR. M. L. R. BRESLAR, the engagement commenced in the early morning, when the Jewish soldier had just finished the ritual use of the phylacteries. Briefly, he wore them by chance and not by intention on the occasion, *& ALECK ABRAHAMS.
PACK-HORSE ; (11 S. xi. 267, 329, 362). It is probably about twenty-five years ago that, in the course of a civil action tried before the late Mr. Justice Fitzjames Stephen at Derby Assizes, the statement was made that the name of Whaley Bridge, near Buxton, was a corruption of " we lay Bridge " ; the origin of the place-name being an inn which, in old days, was largely used as a stopping- place for the night by travellers with teams of pack-horses in journeys to and from Cheshire, Lancashire, and Staffordshire all counties near by. W. B. H.
It is, I think, of interest to note that in The Times of 3 May, 1915, p. 12, there is a lon^ " special " article upon Dartmoor and the Duchy of Cornwall, in which it is stated that the Council of the Duchy " have in contemplation a project for reviving the Devon pack-horse, of which only a few pure- bred specimens now remain, and it is probable that something will be done by judicious crossing to evolve a type combining the best qualities of the foundation breeds that will be suitable
for military purposes. To provide facilities for the development of the scheme the Duchy have taken into their own hands Believer Farm in the valley of the East Dart."
Between the village of Finstock, near Witney (Oxon), and Woodstock there was recently, and I believe there still is, a pack- horse carrier run by a pack-woman.
A. L. HUMPHREYS.
187, Piccadilly, W.
The narrow paved tracks for pack-horses; referred to at the last reference are still in evidence in the Isle of Axholme, where the bogey nature of the ground made them par- ticularly necessary. From Epworth, t he- market town of the district, they run to- Crowle, six miles away ; to Haxey, to Owston r and along the Trent side in fact, to all the- more important places in the Isle. They are composed of narrow flat slabs, and are- now used as footways only. C. C. B.
A RUSSIAN EASTER (US. xi. 277). I much surprised by the two statements of ST. SWITHIN that the Roman Church has- three Masses on Christmas Eve and the- Russian three on Easter Day. I venture to deny both statements. The Roman Church orders only one Mass on Christmas Eve (the- Gospel for which is from Matthew i.), and, as- a fast-day Mass, it was no doi bt formerly celebrated in the afternoon or evening ; but,. like other fast-day Masses, it has long since- been transferred to the morning.
On Christmas Day the Roman Church orders three Masses with distinct Gospels the first after Matins, the second after Prime,. and the third after Terce. The right time- for Matins is midnight, but by custom the- service is held earlier, so that the Mass itself may begin at midnight ; but even so, it is- not right to call it a Christmas Eve Mass.
In the Orthodox Eastern Ch rch, of which the Russian is a part, there is a strict rule- that Mass must not be celebrated twice at the same altar on the same day. The first Mass^of the Easter Festival, both in East and West, is celebrated on the Eve, and in the East the Lit rgy of St. Basil is used. This follows Vespers, but in the West the- Easter Eve IV! ass immediately precedes Vespers . No doubt the right time for this- Mass is after dark (there was an old rule that it must not begin till one star appears in the sky), but it has long since been pushed back to the daytime ; and at the Greek Church at Bayswater it begins at 9 A.M., which seems; a. strange time for Vespers. It is common* however, to have the Matins of a fast-day on the evening before, but I do not think.