NOTES AND QUERIES- [ii s. ix. FEB. 28, 1914
ANNO DOMINI (11 S. ix. 69, 133). In the Episcopal Register of Bishop John de Pontissara of Winchester, beginning 1282, " Anno Domini " is the time -notation in most common use. In the first three pages "Anno gracise "is equally found, but after that it soon drops out. " Anno Domini " is used in a document copied into this Register dated 1240. But the common use earlier than the mid- thirteenth century is "Anno ab Incarnatione Domini " so Gildas, 858, a charter of Henry II., 1114. It survived much later in formal documents, as in the will of H. de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 1361, and in the colophons of many fifteenth- century -printed books, some of which have instead " Anno Salutifere Incarnationis." Berthelet's 'Acts of Henry VIII.' has " Anno Verbi Incarnati," 1544. In a book printed at Leyden, 1617, I note "Anno Messise Regis aeterni," and in devotional books of the seventeenth century are other variations of the same idea. "A.C." = Anno Christi, does not seem common. I find it used marginally in Sulger's ' Annales Monasterii Zwifaltensis,' 1698. " A Na- tivitate Christi " is in the colophon of a Chronicle, 1503. C. DEEDES.
THE SECOND FOLIO OF THE SHAKESPEARE PLAYS, 1632: MILTON'S EPITAPH (US. viii. 141, 196, 232, 294, 317 ; ix. 11, 73, 114). MB. J. DENHAM PARSONS seems to be really convinced that the figure upon the pyramid (which is a pyramid, and does not follow the lines of the pheon, Sidney's arms) on B 2 in Sylvester's translation of Du Bartas, 1605, is nothing more than Sir Philip Sidney's porcupine collared and chained. It is, in fact, a hanged-hog. It has a hog's head clearly drawn a porcupine has a little round head. It has also a hog's cloven hoofs shown very distinctly a porcupine has paws. It is not collared and chained, but has a cord with a slip-knot round its neck, although, in order to lead astray the uninitiated, a chain is carried across its back.
Sir Philip Sidney's ' Arcadia,' 1623, has upon its title-page a large hanged-hog, and round its neck is a very clearly drawn rope, which is furnished with a ring to form a noose in order to show that the hog is a hanged- hog. In this case, however, in addition to the porcupine's quills, it has porcupine's paws, to show that in bringing out the ' Arcadia ' Bacon not only sheltered himself under the porcupine's quills, but assigned the work to the hand of Sidney. Sylvester's
translation, as the ornaments tell us, was produced in Bacon's workshop of good pens. The entry in the Register, 1588 (Sidney died in 1584), indicates that it was at first in- tended to bring out the translation of Du Bartas in Sidney's name.
I hope that MR. THOMAS BAYNE will kindly read once again my account of Milton's epitaph and its clear revelation. It was certainly not written upon the Stratford Clown (who, as I showed in ' N. & Q.,' 24 Aug., 1912, and 26 Oct., 1912, was unable to write so much as a letter of his own name), but it was written upon Bacon, " the World's Wonder."
Stowe in his ' Annales,' 1615, put Bacon seventh in his list of Elizabethan poets. In ' The Great Assises,' which was published anonymously in 1645, Bacon is placed next to Apollo as Chancellor of Parnassus i.e., greatest of the world's poets. Immediately below appears the name of Sir Philip Sidney as " High Constable of Parnassus." This tells us that, although he occupied a dis- tinguished position in the world of letters, yet in fact he was not himself a poet. At the end we find " Edmund Spenser " put as " Clerk of the Assises." This tells us that, although his name appeared attached to poetical works, he had nothing whatever to do with their production. (This fact is confirmed by the 1679 folio edition of Spenser's works, where we are told that he was born in 1510. The 1611 edition, by means of the hanged-hog on the title-page, tells us that Bacon was the real author. )
This same revealing work, ' The Great Assises,' tells us that William Shakespeare was " the writer of weekly accounts." This does not mean that he was able to write, but tells us that the only literature for which he was responsible consisted of his petty tradesman's accounts, which were sent out weekly by his clerk. In the ' Manes Verulamiani,' 1626, Bacon is lauded by numerous writers as the greatest of poets.
In answering MR. J. DENHAM PARSONS I have already disposed of C. C. B.'s objec- tions and suggestions. I am much obliged to PROF. BENSLY for his explanation of Apella. He clearly shows that for centimes it was deemed to signify " sine pelle." This is amply sufficient to account for its employ- ment in a revealing emblem. And to-day, although there are learned men who agree with Dr. Leeper, the question is by no means closed. Dr. Leeper's argument that the use of a as a privative is not good Latin is disproved by the fact that " amens " is an excellent classical word. It is admitted