NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. ix. JAN. 24, 1914.
at hazard, and became general throughout the room, " and as they fought with swords, three gentlemen were mortally wounded."
On pp. 265-6 is an account of a riot in Windmill Street, Haymarket, in May, 1720, when
"near 100 gentlemen and others were all engaged at one time, some with swords, and others with sticks and canes."
" On the evening of May 28 , Captain Fitz- gerald and three young men his companions me^a lady in the Strand, returning from St. James s, conveyed in a sedan chair. They immediately endeavoured to force her out, but were opposed by the chairmen, upon which they drew their swords, and proceeded to demolish the vehicle." The watchman appeared, and was killed, apparently by Fitzgerald, who was secured. The' others fled.
On 30 Dec., 1701, the Earl of Carlisle, Earl Marshal during the minority of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, ordered that "no Footman attending any of the nobility or jrentry of his Majesty's realms shall wear any sword, hanger, bayonet, or other such like offensive weapon within the Cities of London and West- minster, and the liberties and precincts of the same "(ii. 314).
It will be noted that the area of the order was small.
Malcolm (p. 324) quotes some lines from Mist's Journal, describing a Beau of 1727. Among them are
Let a sword then be tied up to his left side. And under his arm plane his hat for a charm.
On the next page, after mention of "a Porter's staff with a large silver handle " as part of " the dress of a Running Footman in 1730," is the following :
" The Beaus of the day seemed emulous of the
Kunning fraternity according to the Universal
Spectator, which says : ' The wearing of Swords at the Court-end of the town is by many polite young gentlemen laid aside; and instead thereof they carry Oak Sticks, with great heads and ugly faces carved thereon.' "
In vol. ii. is a series of sketches of dress, the origins of which are given vol. i. p. xxvii. In that of 1690-1715 and in that of 1721 the sword appears. In the others, ranging from 1735 to 1807, there is no sword. The one male figure in the 1735 example might have a sword ; one sees only his right side.
The sword appears in some prints much later than 1715. See Knight's ' Pictorial History of England.' In vol. iv. p. 805 is a print, " Alamode, 1735." No sword appears. Some of the gentlemen have long staves. On the next page, in "Alamode, 1745," two wear swords. Probably one is an officer. Then follows (p. 807) " General Costume, temp. George II. From Prints of the Trial
and Execution of the Rebel Lords, 1746." Each of the two gentlemen wears a sword.
In the Second Series of the History, vol. i. p. 643, is "A Festino. From a Print by J. Bickham. 1765," in which two out of four have swords. On p. 675 is "From a print by J. Bickham. 1762," in which the single figure has a sword. On the next page is " A Maccaroni. From a Print pub- lished by Bowles. 1773." The Maccaroni has a sword as well as a tasselled staff.
In vol. iii. of the second series, p. 761 et seq. , are some woodcuts of ' Fashions from 1785 to 1801.' The origins are not given. One of a gentleman, apparently with a stick though it may possibly be meant for a sword is dated 1785. Another with a sword is dated 1788.
In Gillray's caricatures the civilian with the sword is rarely to be found.- In the two prints ' The Bottomless Pitt ' and ' John Bull Bothered ; or, the Geese alarming the Capitol,' dated respectively 16 March and 19 Dec., 1792, Pitt wears a sword. In the former it is on the right hip.
In 'A New Way to Pay the National Debt,' published 21 April, 1786, Pitt has no sword. The only one which appears is that worn by the Duke of Orleans.
One must, however, take into account that these are caricatures. Perhaps there was some subtle meaning in the sword with which Pitt is armed. One cannot believe that he wore a sword when speaking in the House of Commons.
Although Charles Dickens in ' Barnaby Rudge,' chaps, xliii. and Ixxxi., makes Haredale and Sir John Chester carry swords, it would appear that he did not regard the wearing of swords by gentlemen as a general custom in 1780, seeing that in chap. xlix. he makes General Conway say to Lord George Gordon, " You see, my Lord, that the members of this House are all in arms to-day." ROBERT PIERPOINT.
GREEK TYPOGRAPHY (US. viii. 429, 517). In answer to MR. MACRAY, I have in my possession a Polybius printed at Leipsic in 1764, where most of the contractions and abbreviations of an earlier period are kept, and a Homer Ernesti as late as 1814, where the contractions 8 for ov and the curious - shaped * for O-T always occur. I believe Porson is answerable for the more modern lettering of Greek, and I suppose the monks were responsible for the earlier abbreviations, but I should be glad to know.
A. GWYTHER. Windham Club, St. James's Square, S.W