140 NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. FEB. 18,1022. means of remarkably well-balanced and impartial discussion of these, which strikes the reader the more happily from its being obviously com- posed by selection from an abundant store of knowledge. The chapters on the Gallican Con- troversy and on Quietism especially should re- cieve the attention of students. There is a specious attractiveness about the doctrine of Disinterested Love which masks its dangers : just as on the other hand the rancour displayed by Bossuet to which our author bears impartial witness may easily, to uninformed eyes, disguise his true character as the champion of the un- privileged. The Gallican controversy, which is perhaps hardly well enough understood in England, should be of considerable interest to the Church historian. Another question which deeply engaged the mind of Bossuet was that of the reunion of the Church. This is found in the forefront of his mind from the time when, as Archdeacon of Metz, he was brought into contact with considerable numbers of Jews and Huguenots. He had a hunger for saving souls which never deserted him, whether the soul was that of a peasant or of a La Valliere. Hence it is not surprising to find that much of his life was spent in controversy with Protestants. But it may surprise us to find how little trace of the odium theologicum appears in his methods. Towards Ferry he showed warm sympathy and magnanimity in an age when religious polemics were distinguished only by their virulence. But though a courteous opponent he may be said to have failed to seize the Protestant point of view. Thus Leibniz, with whom he had a lengthy and friendly corre- spondence, was quite prepared to admit the varia- tions of doctrine in the various Protestant churches, but was no less prepared to defend the desirability of these variations, a position which was quite incomprehensible to Bossuet. On the other hand, the massiveness of his intellect and his honesty made him despise the subtleties of a Bellarmin and the Jesuits. The latter did not fail to accuse him of watering down the faith to suit Protestant palates, and it may be admitted that some of his writing lends colour to the accusation. The question of controversial methods has as a corollary the general question of religious tolerance ; this is dealt with m a most impartial manner by Miss Sanders. It may be said at once that Bossuet is open to serious criticism in this respect. Though a kindly and charitable anta- gonist, the Bishop had a strain of intolerance in his nature. It cannot be doubted that he approved the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and, while discouraging violence in his own see of Meaux, he displayed no disapproval of a resort to dragonnades when argument had failed. But the influence of political considerations must not be forgotten. The Huguenots were a dangerously disruptive factor in the State. Primarily, no doubt, Protestantism was a sin against God him- self ; but secondarily it was also a crime against the monarch, who was regarded by every true Catholic as the representative of God on earth. Politically persecution was logical, and, more than that, might plausibly be justified as necessary. If Bossuet's religious intolerance may thus be not inadequately explained away, it is much more difficult to condone his acceptance of Montausier's treatment of the Dauphin. The governor, a Huguenot by birth and training, a Catholic by policy rather than conviction, seems to have found an outlet for the sternness of his discarded reli- gion in making savage assaults upon his sullen pupil. Once, we are told, the unfortunate lad missed a word in saying the Lord's Prayer. His governor fell upon him and beat him brutally with his fists. Frequently he was crippled by flogging. The cruelty was notorious and must have been well known to Bossuet. But there is no record of intervention, and his passivity must be reckoned a blot upon his character. Of the " human " side of the Bishop this study has less to say. Frankly we could have wished for more ; for the sketches of Ranee and others reveal brilliant powers of characterization. That his personal character was beyond reproach is evident. In a Court where profligacy was a pleasant pastime, a director of fashionable con- sciences must have been singularly exposed to temptation. But M. de Condom moved unsullied in this moral slough. He is portrayed to us as a born priest, as one whose vocation was never in doubt, less other-worldly, perhaps, than M de Cambray, not himself an ascetic, though deeply in sympathy with La.Trappe, inclined to compromise but if necessary prepared to pursue his course to the bitter end. It is clear, too, that he was not without some love of pomp and dignity, though there is no proof that he ever lived the luxurious life of a Court bishop. The production of the book leaves nothing to be desired. The printing and paper are alike praiseworthy and there are two excellent portraits. The bibliography is in itself a valuable piece of work and bears witness to the extent of Miss Sanders's reading and researches. In short, the . book is to be reckoned a thoroughly successful achievement, and as such reflects the greatest credit on author and publisher alike. The price is modest, and it is to be hoped the work will not fail to find a wide circle of friends. THE Publisher urgently requires a copy each of the indexes for vols. vii. and x., llth Series, NOTES AND QUERIES. Readers having copies to spare are asked to communicate. CORRIGENDUM. At ante, p. 94, col. 1, line 14, for " blunder- blus " read blunderbu.*. to EDITORIAL communications should be addressed to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- lishers " at the Office, Printing House Square, London, E.C.4 ; corrected proofs to The Editor, ' N. & Q.,' Printing House Square, London, E.C.4. ALL communications intended for insertion in our columns should bear the name and address of the sender not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.
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