12 S. VI. MAY 29, 1920.] NOTES AND QUERIES.
or literal sense. On each of these topics there is assembled a mass of material which is separated out, and arranged according to its simplest connections, so that each item has its place and worth in the whole. The general outcome is -stated without remoter considerations, and amounts to this -that, while allowing to the "higher clergy, to nuns, and to superior lay-persons a direct acquaintance with the Bible the Church steadily opposed Bible-reading on the part of the multitude; that this prohibition had regard "by no means to the contents themselves of the Bible, nor was so deeply concerned as some might have expected to arouse suspicion of the accuracy or good faith of translations made by "heretics ; but had in view simply the danger of Tieretical misinterpretation on the part of the ignorant. Germany is the country where the orthodox party showed I itself least unsym- pathetic towards the devotional movement which demanded direct acquaintance with the 'Scriptures.
The volume concludes with two valuable Appendices (the second giving, the ' determina- tions ' of Butler, Palmer and Purvey) : and is furnished throughout with careful and abundant annotation.
'The Portrait of a Scholar and other Essai/s.
Written in Macedonia, 1916-1918. By R. W.
Chapman, B.G.A. (Oxford University Press,
"us. 6d. net).
"WE congratulate those friends of our author who persuaded him that these essays were worth collection, and himself, too, on his prudence in not trying to make them better. Not that the camps, dug-outs and troop-trains, which wit- nessed their composition, have sent any penetrat- ing influence into them, perceptible to an ordi- nary reader far less appear to give them a kind of unity. In each essay, as soon as one is fairly caught and held, one loses all sense of Macedonia, .and is brought up short at the last by " Kali- nova," or " Snevce" or " Y4." We intend this
- as a considerable compliment, believing that a
writer with such power of detachment gives ^pso facto evidence of unusual independence, _and, to that extent, promise of welcome original work.
The " portrait " which lends our volume its title is that of Ingram Bywate", and if the shade
of that great scholar can be pleased by delicate, and unobtrusively affectionate homage it must. "be well content. Over ' Proper Names in Poetry '
we enjoyed some pleasant disagreement by no means allowing that the land of Romance is the
only source from which truly satisfying names .are to be derived. No doubt ' Stow-in-the-
wold ' and ' Temple Bar ' are somewhat, though
not equally, difficult ; and they may stand as
representative of many names. But we would invite Mr. Chapman to re-consider Scott (the well-known passages in the ' Lay of the last Minstrel ' in particular) before he decides that 'the Muse loves not much our native names.
It is actually, no doubt, the unfamiliarity of 'foreign names which gives them music in our ears ; perhaps they sound trite and hopeless to their own people. This reviewer remembers Ebeing told by an American of ijthe amusement
created in America, by K. L. StevensonVecstasies over the name ' Ticonderoga.'
The essay " On Rhyme ' is very pleasant and suggestive. We confess in the" Shakespeare sonnet to liking the emendation " rased forth " for " rased quite" better than the accepted one of "fight " for " worth." On the other hand we decline to believe in " dulcimer " being supposed to rhyme with ' ; saw " (this, as all our readers will know, is out of ' Kubla Khan.') We should like to know what Mr. Chapman thinks of double feminine rhymes as in Peacock's
The mountain sheep are sweeter But the valley sheep are fatter, We therefore deemed it meeter To carry off the latter We made an expedition : We met a hbst and quelled it ; We forced a strong position And killed the men who held it and so on for a number of eight-lined stanzas. It is the feminine rhyme which being unmixed gives the force here. The above verses are quoted from memory, and if any one should turn up the original and find the quotation contains errors, let him instantly be referred to Mr. Chapman's essay on ' The Art of Quotation ' and find himself in danger of being convicted of " solemn nonsense." The kindly view there taken about misquotation is characteristic of this whole book, and an element in its charm. Kindliness, where it appears in younger writers, nowadays gains some extra appreciation from its rarity : just as, when the reaction comes and no one may affect superiority or an air of impatience, petulance will strike us as bracing, and the note of omniscience give us thrills.
' The Textual Criticism of English Classics ' is an excellent piece of work, deserving even to be seriously considered. So, almost equally, is the paper on " Decay of Syntax " ; though it may fairly be objected to it. that its complaints apply chiefly to the ordinary writing of journalists. One charge brought against modern prose we hoped to find discussed with illustrations ; but it is merely stated and left : " a tendency. . . .to use nouns instead of verbs." As it is given us, how- ever, we would press this paper upon the attention of the myriads who wield the pen not only that they may be edified, but also that they may be amused.
We have extended our notice of this little book in proportion rather to our own enjoyment of it, than to the space of ' N. & Q.' In conclusion, to set the author more clearly before our readers, we will only remark that he is a hearty lover of Johnson, and contrives to say about him things that are fresh and worth saying.
The Month* Occupations. From an English Calendar of the Eleventh Century. British Museum, Sec 41. (Humphrey Milford. In. net per packet of 12).
THE reference to the English Calendar in question is Cotton MS. ' Julius ' A. vi. We are glad to bring these postcards t-.> the notice of our readers. The original drawings are, as many students know, full of vigour and charm, and also most instructive. They have been very satisfactorily reproduced, and form a notable addition to the series.