12 S. VI. FEB., 1920.]
NOTES AND QUERIES.
to breake or caste downe any of the said houses the tymber as well of the said walles as rooffes be PO greatt & covered most parte with turves & earthee that they wyll not easyly bume or he sett on fyere/'
In the ' View ' it is frequently noted that a house or a tower is of stone, which seems to imply that there were others of wood.
M. H. DODDS.
Home House, Kell's Lane, Low Fell, Gateshead.
LONGWORTH CASTLE, HEREFORDSHIRE (12 S. v. 320). According to Jakeman and Carver's ' Directory and Gazetteer of Here- fordshire,' 1890, Longworth, the property of Wm. Hy. Barneby, Esq., J.P., D.L., is situated about one mile south of Lugwardine parish and four miles east of the City of Hereford. The mansion was for several centuries the seat of the ancient family of the Walwyns, who derived their name from Gwallain or Wallwain Castle in Pembroke- shire. Sir Peter Gwallain was engaged in the conquest of Brecknockshire, with the army of William Rufus ; The grounds display some fine timber, and the scenery is pleasant.
CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 204 Hermon Hill, Sth. Woodford.
I cannot find this Castle, but there is a country seat named Longworth House 3 miles east of Hereford, and 2 miles from Sufton, on the opposite side of the river Frome. Britton and Brayley gives a short account of the family of Walwyn who occupied the mansion for some centuries. ARCHIBALD SPARKE.
BOYER FAMILY (12 S. v. 294). J. H. R. appears to be mistaken in stating that the son of Peter Boyer bf St. Giles and father of the Rev. James Boyer (Upper Master of Christ's Hospital in Lamb's time, and my great-grandfather) was named Abraham. That he bore the same name as his father Peter is shown by the extracts from the Minute Book of the Cooper's Company, which I give below :
May 3, 1715. Peter Boyer, son of Peter Boyer, a Frenchman, naturalized, of St. Giles-iri-the- Fields in the County of Middlesex, distiller, ap- prenticed to Rich 11 Parker, a cooper.
June 5, 1722. Peter Bover, upon Testimony of Rich' 1 Parker, admitted a Freeman by servitude Lawrence Pountney Lane.
April 23. 1782. James Boyer, upon a view of his Father's copy is admitted a Freeman by Patri- mony. Christ's Hospital Clerk.
At the same time he paid 8 6s. Sd., being quarterage at 3.s. 4rf. per annum for 50 years from the time his father Peter Boyer was admitted to his freedom to the time of his death.
These extracts were sent to me by Mr, Herbert Boyer-Brown of Ongar, Essex, who- tells me that they are copied from a letter written by Mr. James Boyer (the clerk to- the Cooper's Company and son of the Rev. James Boyer) to his brother Francis in March, 1842. Mr. Boyer-Brown adds that although, in view of the fact that both migrated from France to London, it seems not unlikely that the Abel Boyer (1667- 1729) born at Castres was related to Peter Boyer of St. Giles-in-the-Field, he has been unable to trace a relationship, and that Boyer is, of course, a very common French- name. E. G. DISTIN (nee BOYER). Holtwhite House, Enfield.
ELEPHANT AND CASTLE (12 S. vi. 11). Whilst not disposed to criticize the Adam and Eve theory as to the origin of this sign, which your correspondent truly says leaves him " more in the dark than ever " for what mysteries are there which do not emanate from that supreme legend, or are more or less associated with it ? I venture to- suggest a more get-at-able explanation. Its' origin is traced in the history of chess. As- most of your readers must know, the elephant' and the castle are pieces in this most ancient" of games. The elephant appears in Oriental' chess, from whence the game came into- Europe ; but there was no castle on its back. Its meaning can only be vaguely guessed in the light of Hindu religion and philosophy, which regard this animal as- sacred. Instead of the present castle, there was originally a ship. This ship was- associated with the mystery of the Sacred Fire. It was, I venture to say, not unknown . to British chess, even at the period of the Caxton press publications, as an old copy of Cesolis, translated under the auspices of this Guild, indicates in one of its plates, which shows a piece with a pole and flag attached to it. It is impossible to make out for certain what the base of this piece is, but it certainly is not a castle ; nor do any of the other pieces visible (27 in all) show the shape of a castle. For if one is right as to the piece with mast and flag being a shipi there is no place for a castle. The Hindu name for the ship was roka. The Persians called it rukh, i.e., in their tongue, a champion. The Arabians, also deceived by a mere sound, called it roc, i.e., in their tongue-, a gigantic bird. The Italians, following suit, called it rocco, i.e., a castle. The French called it roquer. The English called it rook. It has been represented in sets of European chessmen for an uncertain period by the figure of an ancient Persian fire-tower. ..