NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. x. DEC. 20, 1902.
was not dictated by the Greek etymon, but was a device of the old grammarians to mark the length of the vowel ; hence also the ancient spellings extresme, supresme.
Theatre probably takes the circumflex from a fancied resemblance with the depreciative ending -dtre, which is rightly accented to mark the suppression of s as seen in blanckdtre = blanckastre, and the Anglo-Italian poetaster =poetastro. An admirable paper on the French accents will be found in the Modern Language Monthly for October, 1891. It is to be regretted that Darmesteter in his ' His- torical Grammar ' does not treat of the sub- ject. Students seldom understand the theory of French accentuation. H. A. STRONG.
University College, Liverpool.
Votre correspondant demande la significa- tion de Paccent circonflexe suf le mot the'dtre, &c. II dit aussi "encore frequemment em- ploye" ("still frequently used ") : il a du dire toujours employe, car, de nos jours, Pomettre, c'est une faute d'orthographe. Quant a sa signification, il n'y en a pas, a ce qu'il parait : c'est le tyran Pusage qui a triomphe, et il faut que tout le monde, meme les savants, s'inclinent devant lui. Voici ce que dit 1'edition que j'ai de la ' Grammaire des Grammaires' (1867, tome ii. p. 975); ordi- nairement les dictionnaires ne font pas allu- sion a ce point.
" On va voir que pour le mot thedtre 1'usage a triomph6 de I'Stymologie ; il en est de meme pour le mot dine Or la contraction qui rend la pre- miere syllabe longue, tandis qu'elle est breve dans amour qui n'est pas contract^, nous semble un motif suffisant pour admettre 1'accent circonflexe. A. L.
" Theatre. Ce mot devrait, par les memes motifs, s'ecrire sans accent, puisque d'ailleurs il vient 6videmment de theatrum ; mais ici tous les lexi- cographes et 1'usage generalement adopte en ont decide autrement." Domergue, p. 206 de ses
- Solut. Gramm.'
Quant a Pusage, le tout-puissant, j'ai re- marque que dans le ' Dictionnaire de Trevoux ' (1771) on se sert de Paccent circonflexe pour le mot thedtre, mais non pas pour les lettres majuscules, tout en conservant Paccent aigu (sur Ye) partout. II m'est avis qu'il n'y a rien a faire que d'accepter Pinevitable en Pespece. EDWARD LATHAM.
61, Friends' Road, East Croydon.
PRONUNCIATION OF "NG" (9 th S. x. 266, 393). My recollection of Liverpool speech does not quite agree with what MR. ELWORTHY says. I have, indeed, frequently heard there the double g in " singing," " bringing," and " ringing " - this was strongly impressed upon me by the singing
in Sunday schools of the popular hymn " When, His salvation bringing " but I have also heard, though not so often, such words as "younger," "stronger," and " longer " pronounced as MR. ELWORTHY says they are pronounced in the South. I have a friend, born, it is true, in Cheshire, but a Liverpool man for fifty years, who always so pronounces them, and this is the more remarkable because he is exceptionally well educated, and has no other peculiarity of speech. If, as is probable, he sees this note, I hope he will explain himself. C. C. B.
REFERENCES WANTED (9 th S. x. 268, 351). In Longfellow's ' Hyperion ' the lines are as follows :
Who ne'er his Bread in Sorrow ate, Who ne'er the mournful Midnight hours Weeping upon his Bed has sat, He knows you not, ye Heavenly Powers.
MOMMSEN AND BRUTUS (9 th S. x. 303, 417). Consul and consulere are both derived from con and satire (see Vanigek, ' Etymologisches Worterbuch,' vol. ii. p. 1025). Con-sul-ere is "to come together," hence to consult. The root sal meant originally merely "to go"; its meaning was in time specialized, now to leap, as in sal-ire ; now to flow, as in-sul-a, lit. " what is in the flow " (cf. Corssen, ' Aussprache und Betonung,' vol. ii. p. 70). HERBERT A. STRONG.
University College, Liverpool.
LlGHTOWLER SURNAME (9 th S. X. 326, 414).
This was not an uncommon name in Lan- cashire during the period covered by the Wigan registers, 1580-1625, and is still in existence. It is from the place-name Light Alders, and both forms are found in the Rochdale parish registers. Light Hazles is another place-name, and a reservoir not far from Lightowlers, near Rochdale, is still called Light Hazles. HENRY BRIERLEY. Mabs Cross, Wigan.
I think the origin of this name may be found in the fact indicated by DR. FORSHAW at the last reference of its being a common surname in Bradford and neighbourhood. An "owler" was a wool smuggler, so called because he went abroad at night like an owl conveying wool or prohibited goods to the coast to be shipped contrary to law. The odium that would attend the exploits of the smuggler to-day was very often absent in the flourishing days of " free- trade "; and since Bradford has so long maintained its supremacy as the principal centre of the worsted trade it is probable that a light-