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9* S. XL FEB. 21, 1903,] NOTES AND QUERIES.


out of the question, and I find no such expression as "societas aurata " among the documents relating to the early history of the Order of the Bath published by Anstis. CAMPBELL DODGSON.

" BAGMAN" COMMERCIAL TRAVELLER. Can any of your correspondents indicate the use of the word "bagman," in the sense of commercial traveller, prior to 1800] A refer- ence illustrative of its use in Goldsmith's 'Essays,' date 1765, appears in the 'New English Dictionary.' But in every edition of these * Essays ' to which I have referred the word reads " bug-man/' not " bagman."

ALGERNON WARREN.

GEORGE HOLLINGS was admitted to West- minster School 19 July, 1780. Particulars of his parentage and career are desired.

G. F. R. B.

ELIZABETHAN PORTRAIT. Can you or any of your readers give a clue to the identity of an old Elizabethan portrait which is in my possession] The face is noble and refined, and the picture bears the following inscrip- tion : " An : 162 [?] AE. Suse 65. Inspice Respice Prospice." INQUIRER.

[The head is surmounted by a cap suggesting a pecies of tiara. ]

GERMAN " HAFF " (OR LAGOON) FISHERFOLK. I shall be appreciatively grateful for references as to German and other literature anent the German Haff fisherfolk and fisheries. Haff fisheries are conducted in fresh, brackish, or sea waters which have comparatively diminutive openings, directly or indirectly, into the sea. Sometimes islands, or still more often prolonged tracts of barren, arid, useless land, occasionally more or less shifting sandbanks or dunes (called in Ger- man Nehrungeri), running more or less parallel with the sea, enclose the Haff or quasi-coast lake, leaving only a narrowed opening into the sea. Are these sandbanks used in Europe or the United States for sea- salt artificial "farms," after the fashion of Japanese artificial sea-salt farms, or the solar salt farms on inter- tidal lands in the U.S. 1

In Germany the female relatives, especially the daughters of these Haff fishermen, often go out in the fishing boats to assist the men in fish-catching. When not engaged in fish- catching these Haff fishing women and girls frequently aid their families in curing, drying, or salting the fish in or near their homes.

These Haff fisherfolk have no connexion with the Haff or Haaf fishing deep-sea boats used in Shetland. According to the ' Century Dictionary,' Haff, Haf t or Haaf is the Nor-


wegian or Danish word for the sea, especially the deep sea or ocean.

I shall be further obliged if a philologist will kindly explain why this word Haff in the Scandinavian and German languages differs so widely. To a fisherman the distinc- tion between a shallow, land-locked lagoon and the deep ocean is so marked that, anyhow to him, there would be indeed practically no associations between these aquatic areas.

J. LAWRENCE- HAMILTON, M.R.C.S.

30, Sussex Square, Brighton.

" FEAR-NOTHING MAKER." In the Norwich Rate Book for 1633-4, which I have just printed, occurs under the parish of St. Peter, Southgate, the name of John Whittam, " Fear- nothing maker." What was the article he made 1 ? One guesses it was a sort of "oily" or " dreadnaught," but I do not find the word in any dictionary. WALTER RYE.

[Fully explained in ' N.E.D.']

" SWELP." I recently came across the following sentence in a book by Lucas Cleeve : " The wreck lay swelping in the roscid ooze." I should be glad to know the meaning of "swelp"; it is not in any dictionary to which I have access.

J. T. B.

[Such presumably onomatopoBic words, invented by many authors of the day, hardly deserve the honour of being inserted in a dictionary. Let them get established first, at any rate.]

. " FRUITARIAN." Can any correspondent tell me when the word "fruitarian," which is now largely replacing " vegetarian," began to be used, and where 1 OXON.

[The first quotation in the 'N.E.D.' is from the Natural Food Magazine, February, 1893.]

THE Cisio JANUS. Where and what is this 1 ? It occurs in Mr. R. L. Poole's essay in ' The Teaching of History ' (Camb., 1901) :

" The days of the months were reckoned either after the old Roman method by kalends, &c., or else in the modern way from the first onwards. But there are peculiar systems, that of Bologna and the Cisiojanus, which require to be mastered sepa- rately."-?. 26.

C. S. WARD.

COUNSELLOR LACY, OF DUBLIN. His sister Margaret Lacy, who in my account is de- scribed as niece of the Austrian General Lacy, married Thomas Reynolds, woolstapler, of Dublin, about 1695-8. His daughter, Rose Lacy, in her marriage licence, dated 20 February, 1747, is described as of the parish of St. Michan, Dublin, spinster, and married Thomas Fitzgerald, of Kilmeed, co. Kildare, described in the licence as of the parish of Narraghmore, in the county of