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316


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. XL APRIL is, IMS.


tongue, is to-day the language of the street, the market, the newspaper. I write with a Greek postcard before me, the address side of which contains in bilingual form the ordinary caution. The second language is French, the date 1877. By the theory maintained in the note German should by 1903 have been substituted for the French " replica." If this can be shown to be the case, that theory will at least have received some confirmation.

C. LAWRENCE FORD, B.A.

HISTORICAL CATECHISM (9 th S. xi. 209). The following is from a pamphlet entitled 4 The Inquisition and Confessional of the Present Century' (John Kensit, 1893), p. 71 :

"In 1850 a book was published by Burns, entitled the 'History of England for Catholic Children.' It was written under the immediate direction of the late Cardinal Wiseman. Here is an extract : ' When men are determined to destroy not only their own souls, but the souls of many others, they have to be treated as malefactors. It was very shocking that people should be burned ; but it was much more shocking that they should be leading so many more people to be burned in the flames of hell for ever.' 3 '

M. N. G.

KEEMORE SHELLS (9 th S. xi. 189). The more correct orthography is " Kima shells." Bal- four's ' Cyclopaedia of India ' has "Kima, the shells of the Taclabo, or gigantic Philippine oyster^ used as fonts in the churches of that group." As to its origin, it is a Malay ^


See Marsden's 'History of Sumatra,' 1783, and his 'Malayan Dictionary,' 1812, where I find "Kima, a bivalve shell of the clamp kind, Chama gigas, which takes, when cut, a polish equal to the finest marble."

JAMES PLATT, Jun.

'BANTER' (9 th S. xi. 207). This was a humorous weekly one of the many imitators of Punch of which the first number appeared on 2 Sept., 1867, and the last on 6 Jan., 1868. It was " conducted by George Augustus bala, ' and the following were the principal serials that ran through the paper : ' The Bargraves ' and ' On a 'Bus ; or, Philosophy on a Knife-Board,' by G. A. Sala ; and ' Mrs. Letts Diary: her Trials Revealed,' by Augustus Mayhew. It does not seem to nave been a success, and I cannot find any reference to it in 'The Life and Adventures of George Augustus Sala.' In politics it represented the advanced left wing of the Liberal party. When the last issue appeared the numbers were bound up in paper boards with a replica of the illustrated title-page on the tront cover, and sold at the price of half- a-crown. The illustrations, though not equal


to those of Punch in its palmy days, were in many cases effective and well drawn.

W. F. PRIDEAUX.

SIR WILLIAM WALLACE (9 th S. xi. 165). MR. JONAS will find the detailed sentence that Wallace should be executed in London in Horwood and Pike, ' Year-Books of the Reign of Edward III., Years XI. and XLI.' (Rolls, 1883), at pp. 171-3. He may also be interested in the particulars given by Mr. Pike in the introduction to the same book, pp. xxix-xxxiv. O. O. H.

LONDON APPRENTICES: THEIR DRESS (9 th S. xi. 207). The following extract from an article entitled ' England during the War of the Roses ' (1455-85), which appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, may answer your correspondent's purpose :

" Suitable clothing, befitting his calling, was found for the apprentice each year by his master. We gather from the following incident what was the apparel worn by an apprentice. John Smoke had been sent by his master. Henry Reynolds, to trans- act some business in Ipswich, a town eight miles distant. His journey lay for the greater part of the way across a vast extent of wild heath land, where bracken and gorse grew abundantly. Upon his re- turn homeward, and when he was nearly two miles beyond the outskirts of the borough, he was sud- denly attacked on the heath by two wayfarers and brutally murdered. The murderers Robert Skales and his brother Thomas, both of the county of Nor- folkstripped the body of all its clothing, which they carried away with them. The clothing con- sisted of a hood valued at two shillings and two- pence, a tunic of the value of five shillings, a doublet valued at three shillings and fourpence, a pair of shoes value sixteen pence, a pair of socks (sotulares) value sixpence, a kirtle and a shirt. Robert Skales was hanged for the murder, but Thomas, who like his brother was mentioned in the indictment as ' labourer,' pleaded after conviction that he was a 'clerk,' and was therefore handed over to the bishop's officer for trial."' Gaol Deliveries,' temp. Edw. IV. (1461-63), Record Office.

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 71, Brecknock Road.

The dress of the London apprentice must have varied, like that of other classes, with the times in which he lived. His belted tunic, long hose, and flat cap are represented in plate 6, vol. i. of 'Old and New London.' An old chap-book of the seventeenth cen- tury represents him with a conical cap. What he was not allowed to wear will be found by reference to Herbert's 'Twelve Livery Companies,' 1837, vol. i. pp. 166-7. The dress of a valet or servant, which nearly approached it, will be found, I think, in either Strutt's ' Costume 3 or C. H. Smith's ' Ancient Costume of England,' but such works are generally confined to the costume of the