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XL MAY 16, loos.] NOTES AND QUEKIES.


393


Cocquelinis,' vol. i. p. 158, Rome, 1739 ; also the last line of the life of this Pope (ninety- seventh) in Platina's * Historia de Vitis P. Roraanorum,' Colonise, 1636. From both it also appears that Formosus III. was the first to obtain the Roman See by translation. See also Bower's ' Popes, 3 vol. v. p. 66, Formosus (one hundred and tenth Bishop of Rome). He was the first that was translated from another see to that of Rome, anno 891. Vide also p. 487, vol. i. part i. of Manns's ' Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages.'

STRATTON- ON-THE- FOSSE. The date of his death is usually given as 25 December, 795, but Mas Latrie ('Tre'sor de Chron.,' 2301) refers to Rossi (in Melanges de I'JEcole Franp. de Rome, October, 1888, p. 479) for the epitaph, written in Latin by Charles the Great, in support of 26 December. I have not been able to verify the reference. Formosus, Pope 891-6, was at the time of his election Bishop of Portus. This is the earliest known instance of translation to the See of Rome. C. S. WARD.

BAGPIPES (9 th S. xi. 329) According to Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates,' the bagpipe is an ancient Greek and Roman instrument. On a piece of ancient Grecian sculpture, now in Rome, a bagpiper is represented dressed like a modern Highlander. Then we have Strutt's 4 Sports and Pastimes,' according to which, in the fourth year of Edward II. (1310-11), Janino la Cheveretter (the bag- piper) was paid on one occasion forty shil- lings, and on another twenty, for performing his minstrelsy before the king. Under these circumstances it would be difficult to answer the query by whom bagpipes were devised and put together. L. L. K.

THE GERMAN REPRINT OF LEIQARRAGA'S BOOKS (9 th S. xi. 64, 112, 191, 276). I have found yet two more variations from the original : Fol. 382, verse 14, "obra" has been perverted into "obre" ; fol. 446 verso, verse 18, the original has "eta sey," but the reprint has "eta sey." E. S. DODGSON.

FORTY POUNDS A YEAR IN GOLDSMITH'S DAY (9 th S. xi. 289;.-Mr. Hubert Hall, in his 'Society in the Elizabethan Age,' reckons money as then worth about five times its present value, but the many prices of differ- ent things given in his book do not seem always to accord with this. In 1589 wheat was worth from 12s. to 17s. 4d. per quarter ; barley 9s. per quarter. Bullocks sold at about 31. each. On the other hand, a day labourer's wages were ordinarily 2d or 3d. per day. Mr. Arber's estimate ('An English


Garner,' vii. 33) agrees very nearly with Mr. Hall's. C. C. B.

Six - and - twenty articles have already appeared in ' N". & Q.' on the relative value of money at different periods, of which the most instructive and important will be found in 2 nd S. iv. 293; x. 311 (by the late PROF. DE MORGAN) ; 3 rd S. i. 182, 238, 395. I think the subject might be now closed.

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 71, Brecknock Road.

CORNISH WRECKERS (9 th S. xi. 126, 196, 233, 274). Thomas Hodgkin, in his 'Life of George Fox,' gives an account, quoting from Fox's 'Journal,' of the Cornish wreckers of the seventeenth century. In a foot-note (p. 161) he adds : " The fouler charge against the Cornish men, that they actually caused ship- wrecks by displaying false lights on the shore, and so forth, is not noticed by Fox, and may be probably set down as a myth of later times." E. S. PHILLIPS.

SIR JOHN AND LADY TAYLOR (9 th S. xi. 309). Sir John Taylor was painted by R. E. Pine (engraved by Dickinson), by J. Smart (en- graved by J. Dixon), and by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1777 (for the Dilettanti picture) and in 1784 ; the last was paid for together with the portrait of Lady Taylor and Mr. Graham, 157. 10s., 4 January, 1785. These three pictures were dispersed. The portrait of Sir John has been lost sight of. Lady Taylor (the one engraved by W. Dickinson as be- longing to Robert Graham) was sold in 1835 to the Earl of Egremont, and now belongs to Lord Leconfield, at Petworth. Mr. Graham's portrait became the property of Henry Graves & Co., and was sold by them to America in 1889. Sir Joshua painted another portrait of Lady Taylor in 1777. This belonged in 1854 to Mrs. Vulliamy, and was sold at her sale as Lady Watson Taylor in 1858. This picture now belongs to Maurice Kann, Esq., of Paris. A third portrait of Lady Taylor in a hat was sold at Wynn Ellis's sale in 1876, and now belongs to M. C. Groult, of Paris. ALGERNON GRAVES.

'PiLLOW-BER" (9 th S. xi. 145, 337). The various spellings are given in the 'H.E.D.,' s.v. Bear (2), which seems not to have been consulted. These are : bere, bare, beare, bear, beere, ber, beier, bier, beer. The earliest ex- amples occur in bere, Chaucer, ' Book Duch.,' 254; pilwe-ber, Chaucer, 'Prol.,' 694; bed- bere, ' Early Eng. Wills,' ed. Furnivall, p. 41 (A.D. 1420). It is probably an English word, and is cognate with Low German biiren, biire, bure ; whence it has been adopted also into