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9*8. XI. MAY 23, 1903.] NOTES AND QUERIES.


members of Oriel. 'Oriel Muniments,' 30 Oct., 1417, and 3 Dec., 1421 ; Rannie's ' Oriel Coll.,' 48, 49.

Walter Libert (Lyhert, Lyart, Lyard, Le

Hart), p. 32. Son of a miller at Lanteglos by

Fowey ; Cornish Fellow, ExeterColl., summer,

1420, to autumn, 1425 ; not B. A. in 1420, M.A.,

B.D., D.D. ; rector of Lamarsh, Essex, 1427

-(patron, Margaret Beaufort) ; of Tilling-

ham, 1428 (patron, the king) ; Principal of

St. Martin's Hall in St. John's parish, 1444 ;

rebuilt chancel of St. Mary's, Oxford, 1462

(Wood's ' City,' i. 595 ; ii. 19); rector of Hyam,

Som.; of Nettleton, Wilts, 1434-41 (patron, the

Abbot of Glastonbury, Phillipps, i. 125, 132) ;

Fellow of Oriel, 15 July, 1425, as B.A. ; Pro-

vost, 1 June, 1435 (reg. of Bishop Grey of

Lincoln, 4 June, 1435); res. 28 Feb., 1445/6;

Bishop of Norwich, 24 Jan., 1445/6; confessor

to the queen, ambassador to ISavoy, 1449 ;

d. Hoxne, 17 May, 1472 ; his "body stone" is

still in the cathedral, the sculptured roof of

which was built by him. E. M. Goulburn,

  • The Ancient Sculptures in the Roof of Nor-

wich Cathedral,' 1876; Blomefield's 'Norfolk,'

i. 131, ii. 380-2, 488, iii. 535 ; William of Wor-

cester, 113, 307 ; Gutch, i. 605-8; iii. 127, 131,

287; Peshall, 57, 66; Burrows's 'All Souls','

25 ; Gascoigne, pp. xviii, Ixvii-lxviii, 28, 40, 42,

215; Westcote's' Devon,' 603; WallisVCornw.

Reg.,' 374; 'Political Poems and Songs,' ed.

Wright (Rolls Series), ii. pp . Ivii, 233 ; ' Statutes

of Oriel,' p. 26; 'Oriel Muniments,' 16 July,

1425, 4 June, 1436, 22 Feb., 1445/6, 13 Aug.,

1446 ; Rannie's ' Oriel Coll.,' 58 ; Newcourt,

ii. 74, 361, 598 ; 'All Souls' Archives,' 154, 159,

289 ; ' Bodleian Charters,' 224, 358 ; Clark's

' Oxford Colleges,' 104-5, 123; Ramsay's ' Lan-

caster and York,' ii. 129 ; Oxford Archit.

Soc., N.S., i. 174, iv. 325; T. G. Jackson's

'Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford'

(1897), 113, 119, 213; 'Hist. Comm.,' v. 485

Nat. Biog.,' i. 344; ' Bibl. Corn.,' 211, 1219 'Coll. Corn.,' 325; 'D.N.B.,' xxxiv. 325 ' a M. Waltero Lyhert

summer, 1444,

per viam mutui super uiiam obligacionem comuni sigillo sigillatam " ; autumn, 1447 "iiiid. Pencaer pro una litera concepta domino Norevic. episcopo." A. R. BAYLEY.

MANIOC : ITS ETYMOLOGY. No dictionary has yet explained how Brazilian mandiocc became shortened to our manioc. Manio( came into English through French, which shifts the investigation to French ground French dictionaries recognize various ortho graphics, but make no attempt to determin their relative dates.

According to my own reading, the mos corrupt, manihot, is also the oldest, appear

ng as early as 1558 (in Thevet). In 1614 Claude d'Abbeville improved this to manioch. rom 1658 onwards mandioque appears, and n 1762 the Academy recognized the latter s the standard spelling, but ultimately eplaced it by manioc, which, though less iccurate, was more popular. The interchange n these examples of nd and n scarcely calls or comment, as, even in the mouths of the ndians, mandioca is readily simplified to nanioca. Of greater interest is the omission }y Claude d'Abbeville of the final vowel -a. ["his omission is not confined to the word under discussion ; he and his contemporaries ihow other cases of it, writing pac for paca, lep for peba (a kind of armadillo), &c.

It would seem that the final unstressed -a )f the Tupi language was so lightly pro- nounced as to be barely audible. It is some proof of this that the cognate dialect spoken n Paraguay, called Guarani, cut off not only ihe final unstressed -a, but even the preceding consonant. Thus the Paraguayan form of mandioca is mandio, which is actually used n some English books, e.g., Dobrizhoffer's Account of the Abipones,' 1822, vol. i. p. 89, has, " The roots of the mandio afforded them rood." JAS. PLATT, Jun.

' BAY" = EMBANKMENT. "Item dicunt quod baya vivarii tradita fuit ad emendan- dum per consilium Petri de Leya pro xxij marcis" ('Rotuli Hundredorum,' ii. 41 b). The date here is 1254, the earliest quotation in the 'N.E.D. ' being 1581. S. O. ADDY.

W. PEKKINS, FELLOW OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE. There is a catalogue of the works of this once popular writer in the ' Athense Cantabr.,' and 1 apprehend it is nearly complete. But I have a copy of a sermon of his published during his life, the title of which is " The True Gaine : more in worth then all the goods in the world. Phil., c. 3. v. 7. Printed by John Legat, Printer to the Universitie of Cambridge 1601." This is not to be found in the list of works in the ' Athense.' The name is not on the title-page, but " The epistle Dedicatorie' is signed " your W. in all dutie to command, W. Perkins." S. ARNOTT.

Emmanuel College.

PHINEAS PETT. If at any time Phineas Pett, naval architect in the time of James I., has been described as Sir Phineas, this should be corrected, as he was not a knight. He appears as plain Phineas in the ' Catalogue of National Portraits,' April, 1866. He there stands under a rock (1 saw the portrait), his hand on a projecting crag. He has a long face and brown flowing hair. A ship occupies